A Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais (SPOSHO) é uma sociedade científica que tem como principais objectivos a promoção da discussão dos diferentes domínios da segurança e higiene ocupacionais (SHO), o desenvolvimento de acções de divulgação e de formação no domínio da SHO, e constitui-se como um espaço de defesa dos interesses comuns dos técnicos desta área da Sociedade, bem como em participar e estabelecer relações com sociedades científicas congéneres, a nível nacional e internacional. Este livro de proceedings resulta da compilação dos artigos curtos submetidos a um dos eventos organizados pela SPOSHO, o Colóquio Internacional de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais – SHO, que em 2014 cumpriu a sua 10ª edição. O evento teve lugar no Auditório Nobre da Escola de Engenharia da Universidade do Minho, em Guimarães. A edição de 2014 abrangeu as temáticas da Ergonomia e do Ambiente Físico, dos Riscos Químicos e Biológicos, da Segurança contra Incêndio e da Gestão da Prevenção, que foram objecto de sessões plenárias, tendo ainda decorrido várias sessões paralelas de comunicações livres nas mais de 25 áreas temáticas previstas para o evento, bem como em várias sessões com apresentação de posters.Saiba mais sobre a Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais.
REPROCESSING OF SINGLE-USE MEDICAL DEVICES – A LEGISLATIVE ISSUE OF THE EU COUNTRIES
ISABEL ABREU, MARIA JOSÉ ABREU, ALEXANDRA COELHO
Due to economical aspects, reprocessing single-use medical devices have been practiced by hospitals and companies raising important issues, mainly concerning to health safety of patients and legislative situation. This paper seeks to assay the situation of reprocessing single-use medical devices in Portugal and the Europe Union, the legislations and the main problems of this practice.Keywords: reprocessing, medical devices, single-use, standards, legislation.
AS LMERT E OS FATORES DE RISCO ASSOCIADOS NO SETOR DA COSTURA DA INDÚSTRIA DO CALÇADO: BREVE REVISÃO DA LITERATURA
LUANA AFONSO, MARIA EUGÉNIA PINHO, PEDRO MIGUEL AREZES
The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) seems to be high among the workers of the sewing sector in the footwear industry. However, only a few studies were found on this issue. Therefore, this paper aims to perform a brief review of the literature about WMSD and the associated risk factors in the sewing sector of the footwear industry. The review of literature was conducted using the systematic search of the database source Web of Knowledge. The few studies found point out to a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms that affect, in particular, the regions of the neck, houlders and back of these workers. There is still much to be done to characterize the WMSD in the sewing sector of the footwear industry. Thus, further studies are needed on this subject in this sector.Keywords: Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, risk factors, sewing sector, footwear industry.
AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCOS DE UM SERVIÇO DE MEDICINA NUCLEAR
RITA CANOTILHO DE ALMEIDA, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
Conducting a Risk Assessment is a key to continuous improvement of quality and safety standards of any organization procedure. It allows a diagnosis of the work conditions, identification and/or quantification of risk and the determination of the corrections to be made, as well as preventive measures and more appropriate protection. For this study, was used the MARAT (Risk Assessment of Accident Method). In Nuclear Medicine department, despite the high degree of specificity, because it is an area where ionizing radiation assume leadership, is necessary and possible to conduct a Risk Assessment at appropriate intervals by a Senior Technician or Work Safety Technician, so that real security conditions are verified on-site improvements to be made in order to not only minimize the harmful effects of radiation in the body, as well as all other physical, chemical, biological hazards and ergonomic featured in any healthcare department. Nuclear medicine is a very simple and synthetically way, as a diagnostic and therapeutic technique, that uses extremely advanced, safe and painless technology to produce images of body organs, allowing its visualization. This is a work area where ionizing radiations are constantly present, and is therefore essential to have a thorough knowledge not only of their consequences, as well as the preventive and protective measures to be taken. The existence of a physicist is mandatory and crucial, but the results showed that there were some situations that should be corrected and/or improved, also demonstrating the degree of importance that a risk assessment carried out by a TSST or TST has even a service with these characteristics, and in parallel with the actuation of Physical responsible. Finally, the aims of this work are developing a Risk Assessment in a Nuclear Medicine Department and demonstrate the importance of the work of a TSST or TST in this Department.Keywords: Risk Assessment, Radioactivity, Physicist
NANOPARTICLES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF AGRIGENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUNDWATER – A SHORT REVIEW
RUI ARAUJO, SUSANA DUARTE, MAURILIA DE ALMEIDA BASTOS, ANDRÉ SILVA
Agrigenic pollution from fertilizers and pesticides is currently one of the major threats to human health. This work aims to assess the potential effectiveness of nanomaterials to reduce the concentration of such pollutants and thus human exposure. A short review, by PRISMA Statement, focused on field applications of nanoremediation, their characterization. The used nanoparticles were exclusively iron based, having been proven quite effective, fostering significant decontamination, particularly when stabilized with carboxymethyl cellulose or emulsified. Stabilized iron based nanoparticles appear to be effective in two planes, first by enabling a swift abiotic reduction of the contaminant, and latter, by promoting an active and persistent biotic decontamination. Adding palladium to nZVI further enhances the decontamination effectiveness while restricting the formation of toxic byproducts. Concerning the injection methods, gravity injection is adequate for porous, pervious soils, while pressure injection is better for clayed and silty soils. Pneumatic injection provided the best nanoparticules’ travel distances. The successes provided by nanoparticles anticipate a relevant technology to reduce human exposure to agrigenic contaminants.Keywords: nanoparticles; remediation; nZVI; soil and groundwater; agrigenic pollution; exposure
INTERVENÇÃO ORGANIZACIONAL E COMPORTAMENTAL EM FATORES DE EXPOSIÇÃO A RISCOS PSICOSSOCIAIS
NATIVIDADE GOMES AUGUSTO
This article will expose the level of intervention of psychosocial risks. Psychosocial intervention (Martínez, Sofía (s/d)) is a set of activities developed and implemented in order to reduce or eliminate exposure to psychosocial risks, acting through working conditions as through individuals, and the interaction between them. The intervention program PRE – Paper, Reason and Emotion (Augusto, 2012) includes the following steps: Step 1: Diagnosis Step 2: The constitution of the working group Step 3: Depth diagnosis Step 4: Communicate the results Step 5: Development and implementation of the action plan Step 6: Follow-up In step 5, on the action plan we have the psychosocial intervention. This article aims to present the various hypotheses of intervention, through behavioral as too organizational, on exposure factors of psychosocial risks.Keywords: psychosocial risks, psychosocial intervention, behavior, psychosocial accident
EFFECTS OF NOISE ON POSTURAL STABILITY DURING STANDING POSITION
RUI AZEVEDO, PAULO MOURAO, EDUARDO ABADE, NUNO TEIXEIRA, ALBERTO CARVALHO
Loss of postural stability can increase the risk of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to provide a new insight into the effects of noise on postural stability during standing position. Twenty-five healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The postural stability was analyzed by a baropodometry platform in 4 different conditions: i) standing position, without any noise and without wearing the ear protectors; ii) standing position, without any noise and wearing the ear protectors; iii) standing position, with noise and without wearing the ear protectors; iv) standing position, with noise and wearing the ear protectors. We concluded that noises with of 2000Hz of frequency and with a level of 95 dB didn’t affect the postural stability in standing position.Keywords: Postural Stability; Noise, Standing, Centre of Pressure
VIBRAÇÕES DE CORPO INTEIRO EM OPERAÇÕES DE PERFURAÇÃO, CARGA E TRANSPORTE EM PEDREIRA
CRISTINA BERNARDO, MARIA LUÍSA MATOS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
The mining work is done with exposure to multiple risks related to the production process, being vibration one of those risks. The aim of this study is to contribute to the study of occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations (WBV) in open pit mining, evaluating and comparing different ces/equipments. The experimental work was conducted in 2013 in a north Portugal open pit mine. Three equipments were studied: rock drill, shovel and dumper. WBV measurement and analysis was conducted in accordance with ISO 2631-1 (1997). It was used a device SVANTEK (Poland), SV 106, enabling the measurement of vibration in three axes (longitudinal xx, lateral yy and vertical zz). It was studied three WBV transmission ways: seat surface, seat backrest and cabin floor (feet). The monitoring of the WBV was taken at each workplace with measuring times between 2 and 3 hours. Data were processed and it was determined the dominant axis, the worker exposure – RMS, A(8) and the maximum peak. The daily exposure to WBV in rock drill and shovel is below the legislated action value (0.5 m·s-2). The worker in these workplaces is protected from physical risk of WBV. In dumper, the daily exposure to WBV in this workplace is above the legislated action value. Thus, it isproposed to maintain the quarry roads more regularly. Big differences were found when the WBV is transmitted through the three-way transmission of WBV.Keywords: Whole-Body Vibration, Open Pit Mining; Rock drill; Shovel; Dumper.
O DIREITO DO TRABALHO E A ERGONOMIA NO POLO DE DUAS RODAS EM MANAUS
This paper presents a reflection on the Production Process and Ergonomics in Polo on Two Wheels Manaus, from the point of view of labor law, with the main objective to analyze the importance of ergonomics for workers polo two wheels and PIM their relations with labor law. Explain the demanding production processes in the production of motorcycles by a system of manual assembly and reducing the number of people, and the actual working conditions experienced by workers Polo Two Wheels in today’s two-wheeler industry in PIM when search fully comply with the dictates of international capital in relation to productivity and competitiveness, without complying with ergonomic precepts. This has led to an overload of work for workers PIM generates a hostile environment, although the managerial discourse deny, translates into motivation and emergence of different occupational diseases, which besides the social cost that the company and the government not assume due to the lack of objective working conditions and improving the quality of life of the worker. The directly associated with the environment of work in industries occupational diseases, beyond the removal of workers have generated the dispute by receiving indemnities relating to these diseases work has caused a backlog of cases in labor courts.Keywords: Ergonomics1; Law Trabalhita2 ; Polo Two Wheels3.
FACTORS AND MOTIVES OF UNSAFE BEHAVIOR OF PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS
The main results of unsafe dangerous behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists in a previous study (Boudrifa et al, 2010), were used in a questionnaire to measure the factors and motives which are behind them. Friedman ranking means test was applied to rank the factors and motives of each of the factors and motives selected under each unsafe behavior of pedestrians and cyclists. It was found that there are different motives and factors behind the unsafe behaviors of pedestrians and cyclists, which reflects the existence of lacking at many levels, especially the non-existence of a special path for them as a result of not taking this type of road users into consideration by road designers, besides the legislative gap concerning this category. This matter might pave the way for the development of the various motives for unsafe behaviours. However, these things should not be as excuses for not especting the high way code. But some necessary precautions need to be taken by giving them their right on the road as well as putting design measures that could orient or direct their behaviours to use different crossing ways.Keywords: unsafe behavior, Pedestrian, cyclists, Factor, motive. Road safety
IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE PERIGOS E AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCOS NUMA LINHA DE ENCHIMENTO DE CERVEJA
JOANA BRANCO, MIGUEL TATO DIOGO
An effective safety industry management needs recurrent risk assessments, since this is the most direct method to identify the hazards and risks at work sites. Therefore, this short-paper aims to demonstrate the results and conclusions withdrawn from a risk assessment in a beer filling line. For this purpose, a quantitative method was used, internally developed and approved by the enterprise. The risk assessment results revealed that ergonomic risks and risks associated with material agents are the ones which present the biggest incidence rates. It was found that hazards and risks collection in loco is crucial, as well as a good planning for the modifications at existing workplaces.Keywords: risk assessment; manufacturing industry; beer filling line
AVALIAÇÃO DO AMBIENTE TÉRMICO NUMA COZINHA INDUSTRIAL CONSIDERANDO AS TAREFAS DESEMPENHADAS POR CADA OPERADOR: UM ESTUDO DE CASO
ANA BRANDÃO, ANDRÉ GIESTA, SARA MARTINS, ISABEL LOUREIRO, NÉLSON COSTA
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thermal environment in an industrial kitchen with 5 operators. The measurements taken on the kitchen were analyzed by applying the WGBT Index and the – PPD/PMV Indices, which follow the guidelines outlined by ISO 7243-1989 and ISO 7730-2005, respectively. The WBGT results indicated that all employees can perform 8 hours of continuous work while the PPD-PMV results showed that all operators are in a situation of thermal discomfort, however without health implications. Based on the results measures to implement were defined, in order to promote the health, comfort and well-being of employees and consequently organizational effectiveness.Keywords: thermal comfort; warm environment; kitchen; WBGT; PMV-PPD.
QUEDAS ALTURA NO SETOR DA CONSTRUÇÃO EM PORTUGAL – UM ESTUDO SOBRE REQUISITOS, OMISSÕES MELHORIAS UTILIZAÇÃO GUARDA CORPOS
TERESA CABANO, GILBERTO SANTOS, ESTELA VILHENA
Statistics report that the work accident fall from height is a major cause of death in the construction sector in Portugal. The study of the causes is usually grouped into categories such as “deficiency of collective protections”, or “absence of collective protections”, referring mainly to the temporary edge protection guardrails. These protections are not only highly suggested to control the risk of falls from height (Vicente e Batista, 2006; Dias, 1997) as also the most used (Cabano, 2013). This reason jointly with the statistics report, asks for the attention for these protections in favor of better effectiveness. In general, this study deals with issues of “how” the construction sector, in the light of the applicable legislation and internal procedures of organizations, uses these temporary collective protections, and what’s their influence. Based upon the existing national legal gaps and applicable regulations, the present study intends to identify organizational and legal measures that contribute to the increasing effectiveness of the emporary edge protection guardrails. Data collection proceeded through a questionnaire survey online with 34 questions, from which 155 responses were obtained from occupational health and safety technicians with experience in the construction sector. The study proceeded to the descriptive analysis and verification of hypotheses through the programs Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) – version 17.0, with analysis by t-test and the test of adherence to the Chi-square. The opinions of occupational health and safety technicians confirm that the variables under study are relevant to the effectiveness of the protection guardrails, and validate the entire hypothesis made to develop new preventive measures for the falls from height in the construction sector. The study concludes with organizational and legal actions and measures of other requirements not regulated by Law or usually not considered in this collective protection. These are, among others, the tests, the certification and standardization, the minimum height of implementation, the procedures and specific records of its use.Keywords: construction, fall from height, legislation, temporary guardrails protection
ANÁLISE DE SAÚDE E SEGURANÇA EM ACADEMIAS DESPORTIVAS – ESTUDO DE CASO
ANDRÉ LUÍS CABRAL, LILIAN OLIVEIRA DE OLIVEIRA, LEONI PENTIADO GODOY
The research is important to assess the unsafe conditions, which users are exposed to practice the fitness, the lack of knowledge and monitoring of professionals, lack of equipment maintenance and consequently the unconcerned with the ergonomics of the physical activities of users, which can cause musculoskeletal disorders. This paper presents a case study on the health and safety with the aim of analyzing the conditions, which are the gyms of Santa Maria city , RS . As well as seeking improvements in the work process aimed at health and safety of those users gym. For purposes of analysis two questionnaires were used, one with descriptive questions directly applied to employees ( instructor, supervisor, trainee ) and another specific about the perception of professionals towards health and safety, work environment hazards, occupational diseases and ergonomics of physical activities. This work was applied in 11 gyms, and a total of 31 interviewed . This study referred the health and safety in the gyms and showed that just a few places are in excellent or very good condition, related to the area, ventilation, luminance and layout, and that 91 % of the gyms do not have programs for health and safety work.Keywords: Health and safety work; ergonomics; musculoskeletal diseases.
EXPOSIÇÃO A RUÍDOS NO TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO NO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA MARIA /RS – UM ESTUDO DE CASO
ANDRÉ LUÍS CABRAL
In urban areas, the main sources of noises are the motor vehicle, both in big cities and in rural towns. With this focus the present study was to evaluate the noise exposure of drivers and passengers on buses in urban public transport in Santa Maria, this caused by motor coach. Study was chosen for the bus line-university center / center-university, which, measurements are given at random times. The assessment of noise exposure was assessed in 30 samples of measurements in front of motor coaches with five public transport companies. For this, we used the dosimeter TES 1355 and the calibrator LUTRON SC-942 in accordance with standard dosimetry NHO-01 Fundacenter. The results showed that the level of exposure to a workload of 8 hours in 90% of the samples is greater than 80 dB (A) and 36.6% of samples are above the permissible limit of 85dB (A).Keywords: Noise, Public Transport, bus motor.
EXPOSIÇÃO A POEIRAS NUMA PEDREIRA
ANA CAMPOS, MARIA LUÍSA MATOS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
The mining industry is defined, according to the main international legal frameworks as a high risk activity. Among other factors, this work involves exposure to crystalline silica, which is by itself a high risk factor. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate the concentrations of respirable dust and crystalline silica in a quarry. The respirable dust sampling was performed in six workplaces: Rock, Dumper, Track Excavators, two Wheel Loaders, and Crushing Plant. Sampling methodology was based on NIOSH standard 0600 – Particulates not otherwise regulated, respirable. The samples were collected through personal air sampling pumps, and in each workplace were performed three sampling campaigns. According to the results obtained it was verified that the worker exposed to the highest concentration of respirable dust is the operator of Rock (0.459 mg.m-3), followed by the operator of Wheel Loader Volvo (0.296 mg.m-3). On the other hand, the workplace with the lowest concentration is the Wheel Loader CAT (0.079 mg.m-3). These results could be justified due to the work locations and routines. The Rock operator is more exposed to fine particulates due to the need to help the work process manually and this equipment has a dust collection system that make regular particulates discharges which are maintained in air environment when the meteorological conditions are avourable. The Wheel Loader Volvo operator is responsible for the trucks loading, so he is exposed to fine particulate matter. On the opposite side, the operator of Wheel loader CAT works with rock blocs with big dimensions, which minimize his exposure to fine particulates. According to the Portuguese standard NP 1796:2007, it was concluded that the Threshold Limit Value of respirable dust, 3 mg.m-3, is not exceeded in none of the workplaces. Regarding silica concentration, according to the Portuguese legal framework, the limit value is not exceeded in none of the workplaces. However, according to the Portuguese standard NP 1796:2007, the Threshold Limit Value of silica concentration, 0.025 mg.m-3, is exceeded in four of the six studied workplaces, namely: Rock, Wheel Loader (operating in the stock zone), Crushing Plant and Track Excavator. Once again, Rock operator is the most exposed to silica concentration and the lowest one corresponds to the Wheel Loader CAT.Keywords: Mining industry, respirable particles, silica.
EDUCAR PARA A SST: UMA EXPERIÊNCIA COM ALUNOS DO 4º ANO DE ESCOLARIDADE
CONCEIÇÃO CANCELA, ALDA ALVES, LUÍSA NEVES
The importance of education in the implementation of a culture of risk prevention has been stressed by several agencies and councils in the last decade. A way to approach SST in schools is to actively involve the whole community in the detection and resolution of safety problems. This approach improves safety and health in school and facilitates the acquisition of mechanisms that enable individuals to act in advance in self-defence in risk situations. Noise is an increasing problem with serious health consequences. In schools is important that the acoustic conditions are appropriate to its occupants health and welfare. Considering the problem of excessive noise perceived by users of the school canteen, a project was developed in a Primary School aiming to engage 4th grade children in the study of the noise problem and ways of solving it. Noise levels in the canteen were measured in two periods (before and during lunch) on 4 different days. After educational intervention a new measure was conducted in order to establish a comparison with the results previously reported and thus assess the impact of action developed. Children organized and analyse the data collected with the sound level meter and crossed them with the information obtained by research on various sources. They present their learning’s about noise pollution, harms of systematic exposure to noise, noise sources and ways to reduce them to school fellows, parents, local authorities and local newspaper. A report about the noise levels measured in the canteen and intervention proposals aimed at solving the problem was sent to the Mayor, responsible for intervention in school buildings and for health and safety of canteen employees. Noise levels recorded in the canteen were much above 55dB, value that marks the beginning of auditory stress. After the educational intervention the values measured during lunch time decreased, indicating a children behavioural change. Crossing the measured values with information researched about the theme, children become aware of noise levels and its impact in human health and recognized that the solution of the problem involved several approaches: an intervention on the acoustic conditions of the canteen (placing absorbent materials in the upper parts of the walls and ceilings, replacing the rectangular tables by round tables, placing tablecloths on the tables); behavioural change (awareness raising, dissemination of the work); protection of the canteen employees (use of earplugs adapted to their function). The developed activities have proved to be important for the acquisition of knowledge about the noise by children, but also by community. Resolution of the problem was not achieved, as it implicates some interventions that were not in children hands, but future actions aimed at improving the acoustic conditions of the canteen and hence improve sound environment and quality of life of its users were identified. Children sensitize the educational community to the problem and lobbied municipal officials for their resolution. Summing up, it seems that those activities contributed to promote a culture of prevention and sensitivity to risk in children and in the surrounding community.Keywords: noise, health, education, prevention, participation.
TÉCNICO DE SEGURANÇA NUMA REFINARIA: RESPONDER ÀS ESPECIFICAÇÕES DE UMA INDÚSTRIA
ANA CARDOSO, SAMEIRO QUEIRÓS, ANDRÉ FERNANDES, ANA SOFIA ROÇADAS, MIGUEL TATO DIOGO
Oil refining industry as a chemical process plant, contemplates a great variety of chemical and physical processes that are carried out in specific units comprising a wide variety of equipment and different infrastructures. This type of industry represents a universe of specifications in terms of safety for it has the potential for major industrial accidents to occur, being essential to perform maintenance operations. In this paper it will be discussed the specifications that this industry brings to the role of safety technicians and the need of training about the impact of maintenance activities in the industrial process.Keywords: Oil and gas industry; maintenance, safety representative, training.
ABSENTISMO LABORAL E AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE VIDA RELACIONADA COM A SAÚDE ORAL NUMA AMOSTRA DE FUNCIONÁRIOS PORTUGUESES
CARLOS CARNEIRO, CLÁUDIA RIBEIRO, AUGUSTA MARQUES, NÉLIO VEIGA
Objectives: The objectives of this study was to quantify the labor absenteeism due to oral diseases of the employees of the PSA Peugeot/Citroën Enterprise of Mangualde, the possible personal repercussions resulting from such labor absenteeism and what are the main reasons for this same absenteeism and assess the oral health related quality of life of these workers. Methodology: We designed a cross-sectional epidemiological study with the application of a questionnaire in a sample of 310 employees of PSA Peugeot/Citroën Enterprise of Mangualde, as well as the application of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) to assess the oral health-related quality of life. For the statistical analysis we used the statistical program SPSS 20.0. Results and Discussion: We found a prevalence of absenteeism of 11.6% due to oral diseases in which 63.6% defined as the main factor toothache. A total of 280 hours of work were lost and 580€ were deducted in the worker’s salaries due to the absenteeism. The impact of oral health on the quality of life of the sample is relatively low and the main dimensions affected were “Pain” and “Psychological Discomfort “. A low rate of absenteeism and a low impact on labor by oral health reasons were recorded, however more studies in the European Union and Portugal are needed to establish more conclusive comparisons and results. According to similar studies, we can verify that in our sample the main dimensions affected were the “Pain” and “Psychological Discomfort” and that the impact of oral health on the quality of life is relatively low. Conclusions: An oral health promotion program in the workplace is essential in order to improve oral health status among workers. The implementation in the workplace of an oral health care system to make good use of limited resources should be considered. Conducting more studies in Portugal on absenteeism due to oral diseases as well as changes in quality of life related to oral health are necessary to allow comparisons in order to obtain more conclusive results and facilitating a more efficient health policy implementation among workers.
Keywords: Oral health-related quality-of-life, labor absenteeism, oral diseases, oral health, OHIP-14.
UM CASO DE ESTUDO: ANÁLISE ERGONÓMICA EM CALL CENTER HOSPITALAR
BRUNO CARVALHO, ANA BARROS, LÚCIA FERREIRA, PAULA CARNEIRO, NÉLSON COSTA
Call centers are services present in different areas and sectors of activity. These provide a direct interaction between the company and customers leading to excellent results at various levels as well as increased customer satisfaction. In this sense, a study was undertaken in order to evaluate workstations of a call center in a hospital environment, which uses the tool support and analysis, Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA). The most critical items in consensus for both collaborators and analysts were adopted postures and movements, the repetitiveness of the tasks performed and the surrounding noise present in the work environment. As the EWA is a tool used for a more general analysis, it should be used in parallel with other more specific tools in order to allow to take actions in order to verify, analyze and improve the critical items. With this, the aim is therefore to solve the existing problems in the call center, looking adapting the work to Man and provide employees with the best working conditions.Keywords: Call Center, Ergonomic Workplace Analysis, Postures and Movements, Repeatability of Movements, Surrounding Noise.
EXPOSIÇÃO DOS BOMBEIROS E DA POPULAÇÃO À RADIOACTIVIDADE NAS PARTÍCULAS DE FUMO
FERNANDO P. CARVALHO, JOÃO M. OLIVEIRA, MARGARIDA MALTA
Re-suspension of radionuclides accumulated in the vegetation operated by forest fires was assessed through measuring radionuclide concentrations in particles of smoke clouds. Naturally-occurring radionuclides were found to get concentrated from wood to smoke materials by factors of 102-104 on a mass basis. These radionuclides are present in smoke particles (fly ash) from all sizes, from <0.5 μm to > 7 μm. Polonium-210, which is among all radionuclides analysed the most volatile, becomes concentrated especially in the smallest smoke particles, <0.5 μm, which are inhalable. Prolonged breathing in smoked air, as it occurs often during wild forest fires, may give rise to increased inhalation of radionuclides carried by smoke, and polonium-210 may originate a radiation dose to the lung some 2000 times higher than the natural radioactivity background. This risk of radiation exposure makes highly recommended the protection of respiratory tract when breathing in smoked areas.Keywords: Forest fires, radioactivity, polonium, radiation dose, lung.
MOVIMENTO PORTUÁRIO DE CONTENTORES DE CARGA E CONTROLO DO RISCO DE EXPOSIÇÃO A RADIAÇÕES
FERNANDO P. CARVALHO
The increasing use of cargo containers and their transfer in ports did improve the maritime transports but maintained unchanged the risk of exposure of port and maritime workers to ionizing radiations from radioactive cargos improperly identified. This risk was mitigated with the installation of portals with passive radiation detectors to give warning on radiation emissions from containers. With globalization of world trade, the fast growing maritime transport of goods rendered the visual inspection and verification of the content of every container an impossible task. The also growing safety and security requirements, including those to prevent malevolent acts, fostered the rapid installation of scanners in ports. These scanners are based on the emission of highly energetic ionizing radiation beams which allow for nonintrusive inspection of containers in a minimum of time. Although gains in security have been achieved, there is a permanent need to implement strict radiation monitoring and control in harbour areas in order to ensure the radiation safety of workers.Keywords: Harbours; scanners; dose; radiation protection.
A DIVULGAÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO DA SEGURANÇA E SAÚDE DO TRABALHO NO WEBSITE DAS ORGANIZAÇÕES PORTUGUESAS CERTIFICADAS PELA QUALIDADE, AMBIENTE E SEGURANÇA
FILIPE CARVALHO, GILBERTO SANTOS, JOAQUIM GONÇALVES
The website is a privileged means of communication where information knows no borders, and its disclosure takes a universal dimension. In the business world, communication is regarded as the core element of business processes, where interaction with stakeholders can be translated in terms of its peak on a firm’s website. A lot of the information released today by a firm seeks its own public scrutiny in three dimensions (economic, environmental and social) of the Sustainable Development (SD). The present investigation consists of an exploratory analysis of 422 firms’ websites that were certified at the end of 2011, under the quality (ISO 9001), environment (ISO 14001) and occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/NP 4397) management systems. The research method was based on the technique of Content Analysis, which allowed quantifying by category, subcategories and units of analysis, the contents of the informationdisclosed (Occupational Health and Safety – Policy, Certificates and Brands of Registration) on the company website. In the framework of the Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS), certified according to referential OHSAS 18001/NP 4397, the contents that are more often disclosed on the firm’s website, are: Occupational Health and Safety Policy, Certificates and Brands of Registration (OHSAS 18001/NP 4397).Keywords: Integrated Management Systems (IMS), Corporate Sustainability (CS), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Content Analysis, Corporate Website.
ORGANIZAÇÕES PORTUGUESAS CERTIFICADAS EM QUALIDADE, AMBIENTE E SEGURANÇA POR SETOR DE ATIVIDADE E DISTRIBUIÇÃO GEOGRÁFICA
FILIPE CARVALHO, GILBERTO SANTOS, JOAQUIM GONÇALVES
During the last decade, have come to be registered in Portugal a progressive increase of the organizations that adhere to the certification according to the standards of quality (ISO 9001), environment (ISO 14001), occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/NP 4397) management systems. The present investigation consists in characterize the 523 Portuguese organizations, that were certified at the end of 2011, under the Quality, Environment, Occupational Health and Safety (QEOHS). The aim of the proposed study was to determine the profile typical of organizations QEOHS, in terms of: sector of activity economic, geographical location, legal form, certification body and website corporate.Keywords: Integrated Management Systems (IMS), Quality Management Systems (QMS), Environment Management Systems (EMS), Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS), Portuguese Organizations.
RISCOS PROFISSIONAIS E LESÕES MUSCULOSQUELÉTICAS NA INDÚSTRIA DOS MOLDES DA MARINHA GRANDE
ALDA CASTELÃO, CRISTINA FALEIRO, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
Musculoskeletal Diseases (MSD) are inflammatory and degenerative pathologies of the musculoskeletal system developed by workers when exposed to certain occupational risks. The growing number of workers with complaints of musculoskeletal lesions has been reported, however no studies was find at the mold industry on MSD. The youngest age group records a higher frequency of accidents at work, compared to the higher age level, it turns out, however, that this age group has a greater number of days of sick leave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of occurrence of musculoskeletal diseases in workers in the mould industry, as well as obtain information regarding the localization of these lesions. The sample consisted of 196 male workers surveyed by questionnaires. The data collected allowed to characterize the sample with regard to life habits, working conditions, working environment, postures at work, as well as information concerning complaints with regard to MSD, the causes, the localization, the intensity and the frequency of pain. The results show that workers perform repetitive tasks are in a standing up position for long periods of time and have few intervals. The most common musculoskeletal symptoms were located in the lower back, knees, arms and head, being the older workers who registered more symptoms, as well as more intense and permanent pain.Keywords: Mould Industry, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Risk Factors.
SISTEMA DA TEORIA DA ATIVIDADE APLICADA A ARTEFATOS MEDIADORES NA INDÚSTRIA CALÇADISTA
MAÍZA S. M CAVALCANTI, ADRIELE REGINE S ALMEIDA, JOSIANE D. V. BARBOSA
The article aims to systematize the activity of junction from the footwear industry with the purpose of analyzing the use of an artifact as mediator of the task, from the “Theory of Activity” proposed by Engeström. Using the “Ergonomic Analysis of Work – EAW”, the activity was observed and described being employed as the main base for the development of the study, contributing to the discussion points that make direct parallels between the activity and the system used in the “Theory of Activity”. Therefore resulting in a survey that will enable the expansion of the study in order to promote a new tool with more adequation to the task and comfort for the user.Keywords: Assembly line; Ergonomic design; Footwear industry; Activity Theory.
RELAÇÃO ENTRE RUÍDO E VIBRAÇÃO PRODUZIDOS POR EQUIPAMENTOS DE PEDREIRA
JOÃO CERDEIRA, MARIA LUÍSA MATOS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Inherent to the quarry production activities, are the use of heavy and powerful equipment in order to maximize productivity. Along with these equipment’s activity, including drilling, rock breaking, loading and transportation, comes simultaneously the production of noise and vibration, which in certain circumstances might cause harm to the operator’s health. In this study, conducted in 2013 on a Portuguese quarry, were monitored a Rock drill, two rotary excavators (one with hydraulic hammer and other with a bucket) and a Dumper, while working. The measurements were made in accordance to standard protocols of ISO 2631-1:1997 for vibration and ISO 9612:2011 for noise exposure. Valid equipments were used for presented measurements. The measurement period was never the same, changing from 30 to 60 minutes. Vibration measurements were made for the three-axis (xx, yy, zz) and for the 3 interface positions mentioned on the ISO 2631-1:1997 (backseat-operator, seat-operator and floor-operator), but in the present article only seat-operator’s graphics interface will be presented, because it is the only interface that, according legal Portuguese framework, is recognized as having health effects. The exception is the Rock drill, which is an old and non-cabined vehicle with standing manipulation, where vibration measurements were done on the interface flooroperator. Results showed similar behavior in noise and vibrations, and therefore, a relationship between production of both physical risks. Therefore, results also showed that this similarity is only valid for vehicles where the operator is seated on, meaning direct contact, since most of the vibrations produced by the equipment are result of mechanical activity.Keywords: Quarry; Rock drill; Excavator; Dumper, Vibration, Noise.
ANÁLISE DE POSTURAS E DE MOVIMENTO BASEADA NUM MÉTODO DE ANÁLISE DE IMAGEM
VÍTOR CIRNE, MÁRIO VAZ, MARIA EUGÉNIA PINHO
The study of the relationship between work and health implies a correct identification of occupational factors involved as well as their effects on workers. Among the several occupational risk factors, awkward postures exposure has great importance as a potential generator of musculoskeletal disorders. Depending on the characteristics of the studied activities and the analysis goals, different methods of postural analysis may be used. The choice of the method for the postural analysis depends on various activity characteristics, such as the higher or lower prevalence of the dynamic component of the posture, the level of required accuracy, and the complexity of the studied system, among other variables. With the emergence of methods for image analysis, ergonomics and more specifically the biomechanics area are relying on some of these methods in order to provide more accurate data for postural risk assessment. The methods for image analysis used in ergonomics are extremely helpful throughout the process of postural assessment. This study aimed to assess the risk of postures/ motion in a specific task. The postural data were got by using a free software for video analysis (KINOVEA) and by using just direct observation. From the captured images, KINOVEA provided kinematic variables (position and velocity) of posture/motion. Simultaneously, a group of 9 observers identified the postural data through direct observation supported on the same pictures. Later, in the laboratory, the collected data from both postural examination sources was an important part of the inputs in a traditional method for postures assessment, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Finally, the results of the two postural assessments were compared and some of the strengths and weaknesses of the computer program adopted to process video image, used in the collection of data for the postural assessment, were highlighted. Although more studies are needed, the present work seems to indicate a higher accuracy of the postural parameters obtained through KINOVEA than that of those obtained by direct observation. Data thus obtained may allow a more accurate assessment of risk associated with working postures. However, this accuracy may depend on the sensitivity of the risk assessment method used to the variations of the postural data obtained by different methods, since the differences in the postural parameters obtained by the two methods do not seem to have an important impact on REBA risk level. Although in this work has not been possible to do so, it would be interesting to study the sensitivity of other risk assessment methods to the variations of postural parameters obtained by the two methods herein used.Keywords: pose estimation, biomechanics, image analysis, KINOVEA, REBA.
OBESITY AND PHYSICAL LOADING DURING MANUAL LIFTING
ANA S. COLIM, PEDRO M. AREZES, J. PAULO FLORES, PEDRO R. R. MONTEIRO, INÊS MESQUITA
Manual lifting greatly increases the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD). Muscle loading related to manual tasks may be significantly influenced by workers’ body conditions, being obesity one of them. In the present study, different tasks of manual lifting were performed by 14 participants with different obesity levels, defined in terms of individuals’ fat mass percentage. Surface electromyography (EMG) data were collected bilaterally from 3 muscles recruited during this type of tasks. EMG data normalization was based on the percentage of maximum contraction during each task (MCT). Furthermore, the participants reported physical loading by using the Rated Perceived Exertion scale (RPE). These techniques sought to analyze the physical loading during manual lifting tasks. The obtained results indicate that obesity level influenced the MCT percentage, which in turn increases the muscle loading during manual lifting tasks. However, obesity level does not seem to influence the RPE values. In this context, further studies based on biomechanical approaches are required to provide a more complete understanding of the obesity effects on musculoskeletal loading during manual lifting.Keywords: obesity, physical loading, manual lifting, EMG, RPE.
BARREIRAS DE PROTEÇÃO CONTRA A QUEDA DE ROCHAS
ANA RITA COSTA, TIAGO FERREIRA
The application of the general principles of prevention on construction sites must be a reality. Decisions during the project preparation stage such as an execution option that reduces the risk exposure can be the difference when the goal is the accomplishment of a Safety Policy oriented to prevent accidents and professional diseases. The commitment of all entities involved in a construction site: Client, Contractors and Health and Safety Coordinators is essential on the persecution of this aim. The installation of Rockfall Protection Barriers in a hillside supported by helicopter is a good example of this Policy.Keywords: rockfall, prevention, helicopter, safety, risk.
O AMBIENTE TÉRMICO, O EEG E A ATIVIDADE ALFA NA AVALIAÇÃO DA FADIGA MENTAL
E. QUELHAS COSTA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, JORGE CARVALHO, PEDRO ALMEIDA, MARIANA GONÇALVES
The development of mental fatigue is complex and is determined by an interaction between psychological and physiological factors. The mental fatigue can be manifested by a decreasing on the level of alertness, impairing cognitive performance of the subject and may lead to decreased safety. The change in performance may be due to subtle changes in parameters such as the alertness and attention and may be evaluated through the use of electroencephalography (EEG ) which gives a neurophysiological signal with the temporal precision required for this type of studies. There are five frequency bands in EEG signals that are usually considered: alpha (α), beta (β), delta (δ), theta (θ) and gamma (γ). The purpose of this article is to perform a theoretical analysis that supports the designated alpha power and the ratio alpha / beta as indexs of mental fatigue later related to the effects of environmental thermic change. To this end, a systematic search was performed with specific keywords that resulted in 850 articles, of which 99 were collected for a first analysis. Of these , after a more careful selection , 25 were selected for a second analysis . The exclusion criteria were repeated articles and articles with titles or methodology inconsistent with the subject under study. Through research, it was concluded that the EEG is an electrophysiological technique that accurately reflects subtle changes in attention and alertness, explaining the changes of cognitive function and their performance, and that the increase of power alpha alone or paired with a decrease in beta power, are indicators of changes in alertness, that, along with other indicators, could represent the presence of mental fatigue.Keywords: EEG; alfa activity; beta activity, fatigue indices; thermal environment.
SKIN TEMPERATURE AS AN INDICATOR OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT’S INFLUENCE ON COGNITIVE RESPONSE
E. QUELHAS COSTA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, JORGE CARVALHO
Skin temperature is controlled by the sympathetic nerve activity that reflects the flow of information processed in the brain, being by that, appointed as an effective indicator in objectively evaluating human behavior. Even when the entire skin surface is exposed to a constant ambient temperature, skin temperature varies considerably on the different areas. It is intended in this article to determine, by a literature review, how the skin temperature is an effective and objective physiological indicator in providing a tool to assess the level of awareness and thermal environment influence on cognitive response in sedentary activity. For this purpose a search was carried on in different databases such as Pub Med, Web Science and Scientific Journals. According to the objective of this paper, only work related to humans was considered and the priority was given to studies with ethics committee approval or, at least, informed consent. Many schemes have been proposed for varying the number of measurement points and the respective weighting factors. However, mapping the skin temperature of people who perform low metabolic level tasks in different thermal conditions has not been investigated sufficiently. So, there is a huge amount of activities and situations in which people shall undergo these conditions, ranging from office activity up to operators at nuclear power plants.Keywords: Thermal Environment; Skin Temperature, Thermal Sensation, Heat, Sedentary activity.
ACCLIMATIZATION’S IMPORTANCE TO HIGH OR LOW TEMPERATURES
E. QUELHAS COSTA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Acclimatization impact in workplace is a key subject to understand workers behaviour in different activities. One of the most efficient ways human beings have to deal with stress by exposure to heat or cold, is through physiological adaptation. This process is known as acclimatization to heat or cold respectively, however humans can not adapt to an unlimited level of heat or cold stress. This study aims to present an analysis that supports acclimatization’s importance in work activities. For that, a survey was done with specific keywords resulting in articles analysed according to study objective. The survey was clear about importance of the acclimatization to workplace; But acclimatization time is not consensual. Acclimatization occurs as consequence of heat or cold exposure. Heat acclimatization improves tolerance to higher temperatures and is more effective when it is implemented in warm and wet conditions. In this case, a success indicator is the decrease of core temperature. Cold acclimatization can minimize the risks of cold related injuries. Is settled that acclimatization (to heat orcold) can improve work capabilities and reduce susceptibility to thermal injury.Keywords: Acclimatization, Cold, Heat, Workplace.
AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCOS PSICOSSOCIAIS EM TRABALHADORES PORTUGUESES: A PERSPETIVA A PARTIR DA EUROPA
LÚCIA SIMÕES COSTA, MARTA SANTOS
Psychosocial risks may be defined as the risks to the mental, physical and social health, sourced by working conditions and by organizational and relational factors. Work psychosocial risk factors can be grouped into six dimensions: work intensity and time of work; emotional demands; lack of autonomy; poor social relationships; ethical conflicts and work insecurity. Through the data analysis of the last European working conditions survey we identified some of these factors to the Portuguese workers, and then quantifying their perception about them. We present the results achieved and the conclusions relating to psychosocial risks that most affect these workers.Keywords: Work psychosocial risk; Working conditions, Work; Health; European surveys.
AVALIAÇÃO ERGONÓMICA EM MANIPULAÇÃO DE CITOTÓXICOS
Hospitals constitute a very important part in the Public Health Care System and its importance in the community is unquestionable. The diversity of tasks, consequence of the handling of equipment and drugs exposes the professional to chemical, physical and biological risks. It is a workplace where there should be a Safety and Hygiene policy with identification and solution of risks. The improvements in health and safety of the workplace have a direct impact in the quality of the service. In an organization, the risk management has the purpose to identify, analyse and evaluate risk as to make an informed and assertive decision, allowing a safer work environment according to the orientations of Safety, Hygiene and Health in Workplace. Job evaluation is an important step to allow quality and decision making to implement preventive measures and risk control. The question of the present study is the influence of work methods as well as furniture and equipment in postural load in cytotoxic handling through the application of two ergonomic evaluation tools, RULA and Ergonomic Workplace Analysis and through the application of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Ergonomic Workplace Analysis has level 3, in a scale of 1 to 5, for Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho and intermediate level between 3 and 4 in Hospital de São João which means that further investigation is in order in both workplaces. All of the inquired Centro hospitalar de Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho professionals show signs of trouble in some of the body parts, however this doesn’t prevent them of doing their normal work, but for some of Hospital São João professionals it does prevent them from doing normal work, mostly because of trouble in hand/wrist and back trouble. RULA has determined level of action two for Hospital São João and level 4, the highest possible, for Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho, which means that a corrective ergonomic intervention is necessary. Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho workplace needs urgent changes and may adopt some of the processes established in Hospital São João. In conclusion, work organization and the furniture and equipment apparently have an influence upon gestures and postures and consequently the postural load in cytotoxic handling.
ASSUMIR O RISCO PELOS OUTROS: OS TRABALHADORES DA SEGURANÇA PRIVADA
PAULA COSTA, LILIANA CUNHA
The present study aims to analyze the working conditions and workers health effects in the Private Security. We chose a quantitative methodology by applying the Work and Health Survey (INSAT) as well as a qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews. The results showed workers perceiving their exposure to numerous occupational hazards inherent to the performance of their activity, and these contributed to potentiate and exacerbate workers health problems. The identified constraints suggest the need for intervention in the working conditions of these workers. In this sense, it is necessary to joint efforts, so that the managers of companies and those are responsible for monitoring the health of these workers may develop more contextualized interventions in this activity.Keywords: private security; occupational hazards; working conditions; health at work.
IDENTIFICAÇÃO DAS MEDIDAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE E SEUS POSSÍVEIS IMPACTOS NA SEGURANÇA E SAÚDE DO TRABALHADOR EM CONSTRUÇÕES NO BRASIL
VANESSA AYANNA S. COSTA, MIRTES M. MATTAR, EMILIA KOHLMAN RABBANI, ANDRÉA N. F. LIMA, SIMONE R. SILVA, KALINNY P. V. LAFAYETTE
Recent American studies found that LEED-certified buildings in US have accounted for a higher injury rate than comparative traditional non-LEED buildings. Knowing that the measures chosen to achieve the credits may differ from county to country the present study, aimed to identify and evaluate the construction management practices implemented to achieve LEED certification in two Brazilian buildings and analyze their possible Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) risk impacts. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, personal interviews with stakeholders involved in the certification process and document analysis. It was observed that some measures adopted in the construction process contributed positively to both the environment and to the OSH. However, some measures chosen increased the risk of accidents at construction sites, as installation of photovoltaic panels and large glass panels on the facade of the building. It is expected that the results of this study, may help the certification agencies to consider explicitly the OSH aspects for the conception of sustainability credits, thus ensuring that sustainable buildings are above all safe for all types of users, including the workers that are involved during the buildings life cycle.Keywords: Occupational Safety, Sustainable construction, Leed certification, Risk management.
OS DESAFIOS ÉTICOS E DEONTOLÓGICOS DO TÉCNICO DE SEGURANÇA
VANESSA COUTINHO, JOSÉ CARLOS SEBASTIÃO, ROGÉRIO FILIPE, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
Professional ethics is an emerging phenomenon, arising from the constant changes in society, at work and from the consequent challenges imposed to the occupational safety technicians. The inexistence of a Portuguese ethical code, common to all the technicians and abiding them all to ethical principles and standards essential to their conduct is a major flaw in our occupational safety community. The purpose of this investigation is to trace an overview of the knowledge of ethical principles applied to the professional practice of the Portuguese technicians and gather relevant information from major personalities of national occupational safety community, in order to establish the basic principles that should figure in an ethical code of conduct that truly reflects the reality of practice. The method applied addressed both the technicians, at a national level, by applying a questionnaire and several prominent individuals, by conducting interviews to retrieve relevant data regarding the evolution of the professional practice in Portugal. Also, a bibliographical review allowed an international framework of occupational safety ethics. The results indicate several aspects of the professional conduct that need to be addressed in a ethical guideline. The Portuguese professionals seem to act substantially driven by technical principles, lacking more profound reflection oriented by ethical standards. The development of a Portuguese Ethical Code of Conduct for Occupational Safety Technicians based on the results gathered could reflect the idiosyncrasies of practice in the country, as well as address the most sensitive aspects reported by the professionals. Such code should stand as a high priority issue of both professional and scientific community, promoting the quality of practice and elevating the profession to its highest level.Keywords: Professional Ethics, Guidelines, Principles, Dilemmas, Occupational Safety and Health Actions.
MANUTENÇÃO DE ESCAVADORAS: APARAFUSAMENTO DE RASTOS – CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO RUÍDO
NUNO COUTO, JACQUELINE CASTELO BRANCO, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
In work context, noise is presented by means of complex spectrums composed by the mix of sounds from different sources with different frequency content occurring simultaneously. The noise is absorbed and reflected by the materials around the emission point, transforming the whole plant in a potential risk zone. Variables like frequency and time in which the noise occurs, variables like genetic profile, gender, age, exposure to chemical substances, high sound pressure levels (SPL) exposure after the working shift, can increase the probability of hearing loss in the workers exposed. The industry of heavy machinery maintenance is distinguished by the presence of high SPL during several tasks that take place over the working shift. In this study, an incidence of noise with frequency content above 1 kHz was found, presenting a particular danger to exposed workers health. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occupational noise exposure and characterize in detail the nature of the risk with the purpose of reducing workers exposure in an efficient way. Based in the Portuguese legal framework and in the international standards, a model company was chosen and characterized, and a risk assessment concerning the variable in study was made. Several tasks where separately evaluated by measuring the noise levels of the different workplaces, comparing those measurements with information collected among workers trough a survey in order to map the noise sources in the industry plant, identifying the most hazardous noise tasks and proceed to the 8h day’s work measurements to evaluate workers exposure. The study has showed a tendency for the workers take off the personal protection devices PPA immediately after fulfilling the work tasks, putting themselves in a risky situation, exposed to the noise produced by neighbouring tasks. In that sense, double personal protection use was suggested to be made compulsory, with the simultaneous use of earplugs and earmuffs with the purpose of assuring a safe and healthy work environment. The study also revealed a better attenuation of the noises in study, using earplugs with porous and sound absorbent materials, suggesting that this kind of products are more appropriate to use when in the presence of noises with frequency content above 1kHz.Keywords: noise risk assessment, double protection, heavy machinery maintenance.
AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCOS NA OPERAÇÃO E MANUTENÇÃO DE UMA AUTOESTRADA: O CASO DA A24
RUI FILIPE COUTO, CRISTINA DOS REIS
Nowadays, the concern with the workers safety and welfare is a value added for the productivity increase of the organizations. The most effective way to prevent labour accidents and therefore reduce company’s costs, is by applying an effective health and safety policies. The risk assessment realization is a prevention key factor, identifying the risks and the correct preventive measures, in order to minimize them, and therefore, reduce the workers exposure. According to the Law nº 102/2009, September 10th of 2009, the roadways works without the traffic interruption is considered a high risk activity. For this reason, the main objective of this study research, is to identify the risks in which the workers are subjected on a daily basis during the Highway A24 maintenance operations.Keywords: Safety, Labour accidents, Roadway, Preventive measures.
FATORES ASSOCIADOS AOS ACIDENTES DE TRABALHO NA PESCA
MARTA DAVID, PAULO HENRIQUES DOS MARQUES
The activity of fishing is indicated as one of the most dangerous professions in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors associated with accidents in fishing. It is intended to characterize the human factors, technological and organizational, that contribute to the recognition of the conduct of prevention implemented aboard fishing vessels. The methodology used in this work is based on a questionnaire survey of 304 fishermen who catch and dump fish in Peniche. All risk factors identified by fishermen (regarding ergonomics, hygiene, safety and social psychology) can cause changes in their health. It is necessary to identify risk factors to prevent possible accidents with these fishermen. This study reveals the need of efforts to sensitize this fishing population to the issue of prevention of occupational risks they are exposed to in their workplace.Keywords: Fishing activity, working conditions, safety, prevention, workplace accidents.
ASSESSMENT OF PSYCHOSOCIAL RISKS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDERS IN GREECE
GIANNA DIAKOUMI, PANAGIOTA KATSAKIORI, ANTONIOS MANIATIS, EVA SGOUROU, STAVROS GOUTSOS
Psychosocial risks belong to the new emerging risks which have been studied in occupational health and safety theory, yet still remains difficult to evaluate them in practice. The aim of the present study is to examine psychosocial risk factors in the working environment of telecommunications service providers in Greece, which has been affected by the financial crisis. The assessment of psychosocial risks was performed by the completion of a questionnaire anonymously, by a sample of 222 employees (145 males, 76 females) from eight telecommunication companies in Greece. The study revealed that although the majority of the employees have a high scientific background, almost half of them have no hope and self confidence in finding a new job. Men and women have a different approach towards specific psychosocial risk factors, such as job demands, inequalities and harassment, which in combination with lack of control at work are correlated with occupational health issues, such as exhaustion and occupational stress. Our findings assist in suggesting areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage psychosocial risks, such as the application of appropriate tools, the contribution of various disciplines and the adoption of a human oriented management approach.Keywords: occupational health and safety, telecommunications, work related stress, harassment.
NOVA SOLUÇÃO DE ENGENHARIA DE SEGURANÇA PARA RISCO DE QUEDA EM ACESSO VERTICAL A ESPAÇOS CONFINADOS
A. FÉLIX DOMINGOS, JOÃO BRITO GUTERRES, PAULO HENRIQUES DOS MARQUES
In EPAL – Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres, SA, in Vale da Pedra factory, the risk of falling from a height in the vertical access to confined spaces, was evaluated as being acceptable by the adoption of control measures that did not exist, or were not suitable, or were not used. To respond to this problem, an innovative portable anti-falling device was designed, developed and tested. This prevents falling in access between the ground and the first steps of vertical openings leading to confined spaces. In addition to the preventive function, it can also be part of the fall-arrest protection, as anchor point of fall protection equipment. Several tests revealed that, in comparison with the prefabricated alternatives available, this solution is best suited to prevent falls, due to its adaptability to multiple access settings, with a relatively light device, easy to carry and to use. Physical calculations corroborated the stability and resistance of this device.Keywords: Vertical access; Confined space; Fall from height; Fall-arrest safety.
ABORDAGEM ERGONÔMICA NO PROJETO DE TELAS PARA SALA DE CONTROLE EM UMA EMPRESA DE PETRÓLEO
FRANCISCO JOSÉ DE CASTRO MOURA DUARTE, ADSON EDUARDO RESENDE
This article aims to discuss and make some recommendations about the design of operator displays in control room using the ergonomics principles. The results presented have come from an ergonomics intervention taken place for a petroleum company in Brazil. The methodology used was based on the Ergonomics Working Analysis. The recommendations were built based on detailed observations of the operator’s activity. They were, also, validated with a group of operators, who have participated since the beginning in the new displays (screens/view) design. The paper aims to share the experiences obtained in an ergonomic intervention and to generalize the observations to fit other control room projects. Thus, the results can be used as basis for new interventions and researches in ergonomics display design. The ergonomics recommendations for the design of operator display in the console workstation are presented in two ways. On the one hand, they indicate “how” to present the information on the screens (way of presentation, letter size, colours…). In this case, the main sources of information came from an analysis of specialized literature and from the operator’s experiences. On the other hand, the recommendations go further in the sense that they indicate “what” to present (the screen’s content), as to minimize the navigation between screens and the construction of a global view of the process. In this case, they are based on the analysis of operator’s activity and in the solutions created by them. It is joining both considerations that enable the operator to increase their cognitive resources and their experience. The recommendations presented here have a close relation with practice and possibilities of transformation in the analysed situation. The operational reliability in the process industries is related to, amongst other factors, the conception of interface between the operators and the process. The operator display design may aid the operators in the construction of quicker and more precise diagnosis on the functioning of the process, enabling more effective actions and management of abnormal situations (disturbances in a process).Keywords: Ergonomics, control rooms, supervisory systems, project screens.
HIGIENE E SEGURANÇA ALIMENTAR – AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES ESTRUTURAIS E CONHECIMENTO DOS MANIPULADORES DE ALIMENTOS DAS CANTINAS DO CONCELHO DE MIRANDA DO CORVO
CARLA ESTEVES, CRISTINA SANTOS, JOÃO FIGUEIREDO, ANA FERREIRA
In Portugal the disease Legionnaires was detected in 1979. In 1986 was formed the European Group for the study of Food safety is a basic necessity wherever food is served. In the community canteens where the users are mainly children and elderly people, the condition of the premises and the standards of hygiene and safety must be rigorously observed, so that the quality of the meals is assured. This study seeks to assess the general standards of food hygiene and the level of awareness of the food handlers as regards to hygiene and food safety in the canteens in the district of Miranda do Corvo. The study sample comprised seven canteens and twenty four food handlers. Data collection took place using a questionnaire to record the standard of hygiene and safety on the premises and a further questionnaire specific to the food handlers to assess their knowledge about hygiene and food safety. Afterwards the statistical processing of the data was done using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. The results showed that the general conditions of the premises in the canteens were good, although it is recommended that some aspects which do not fully meet advised standards be improved. With regard to the food handlers, they showed that they had a good level of knowledge in hygiene and food safety matters. However, it is suggested that they would benefit from further training, since they are the principal component in the matter of food safety.Keywords: Food safety, Canteens, Structural conditions, Food handlers, Knowledge.
DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE AVALIAÇÃO DO RISCO DE LESÕES MÚSCULO-ESQUELÉTICAS, UM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO
CRISTIANA ESTEVES, JOSÉ TORRES COSTA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, SUSANA PINTO, JOÃO PEDRO SILVA
There are numerous methods and approaches that aims to assess the risk of contracting an injury in specific workplaces or when performing a particular activity or movement. Nevertheless, in many cases, is still difficult to establish a relationship between work, itself, workplace, symptoms and clear existence of disease. The present study starts from collected data about Work Related Musculoskeletal Injuries, in a specific sector of a company (cheese factory) and, through statistical analysis is seeking for significant elements that allow help to clarify the relationship between these assessments and disease occurrence. The ultimate goal was the confrontation of a few evaluation methods with unambiguous results of the actual existence of disease. For such, it was required an exhaustive descriptive statistical evaluation as well as the use of statistical tests to prove (or not) the independence between different study variables. As regards the application of different valuation methodologies, there was a discrepancy in results. In overall, the Nordic Questionnaire was what presented the best results regarding the existence of disease. In general, self-reporting of symptoms by workers was a better approach to the existence of disease compared with the risk evaluation of workplaces (RULA e OCRA). Simultaneously, the high prevalence of either symptoms and signs of disease justifies the need to undertake preventive measures, reducing the costs associated with the occurrence of these problems.Keywords: Musculoskeletal Injuries, Symptoms, Prevalence, OCRA, RULA.
PREVALÊNCIA DE SINTOMAS E SINAIS DE DOENÇA MUSCULOSQUELÉTICA, UM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO
CRISTIANA ESTEVES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, JOSÉ TORRES COSTA, SUSANA PINTO, JOÃO PEDRO SILVA
MSDs are one of the most common and recognized work-related “diseases”. Still, in many cases, it is difficult to establish a relationship between the work and symptoms and/or clear existence of a disease. The present work sought to conduct a study on Musculoskeletal Injuries, including a statistical analysis that would allow comparing the prevalence results with other studies. It was found a high prevalence of symptoms (51.5 %) and signs of illness even higher (64.8 %). In terms of the relationship with risk factors, the results identified, mainly, the individual ones such as gender, age and performing tasks on a day-to-day basis. The high prevalence of either symptoms and signs of disease justifies the need to undertake preventive measures, reducing the costs associated with the occurrence of these problems.Keywords: Musculoskeletal Injuries, Occupational Disease, Symptoms, Prevalence.
PROMOÇÃO DA SEGURANÇA E SAÚDE NO TRABALHO NO SETOR DE TRANSPORTE COLETIVO URBANO POR ÔNIBUS ATRAVÉS DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS
THIAGO RIBEIRO FERREIRA, MARIA BERNADETE FERNANDES VIEIRA DE MELO
Occupational injuries and illnesses cost the global economy about 1.25 trillion dollars per year. Most of the costs generated by diseases and accidents could be avoided by adopting public policies that encourage the promotion of health and safety at work. In recent years, Urban Public Transport (UPT) by bus in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil, has had alarming rates of accidents at work. The objective of this research was to identify policies that can be adopted in the sector of UPT in João Pessoa, PB, based on European public policies in various sectors. To do so, a bibliographical research was conducted. The research result showed that companies of UPT by bus may be encouraged to promote improved environments and working conditions through public policies that establish OHS requirements for public bidding.Keywords: occupational safety and health, public policy, Urban Public Transport.
REVISÃO LITERÁRIA E ANÁLISE ESTATÍSTICA DA OCORRÊNCIA DE ACIDENTES DO TRABALHO NA INDÚSTRIA CALÇADISTA NO BRASIL E NO MUNDO
WALDEMAR ARAÚJO FILHO, DANIELE TRINDADE, NÁLIA CRISTINA RIBEIRO, ADRIELE REGINE ALMEIDA
The proposed study notes the growing of the footwear industry, and their manufacturing processes relating statistics data of accidents in the sector. This analysis is based on a compilation of occurrences in Brazil and other countries in the world making a comparative of indicators. Having how result a reflection about neediness of more recent informations, and increase of registers of how and where the accidents occurrences are more frequent in the sector to promote solutions to the systems and to incentive the take of preventive actions.
Keywords: Occupational accidents, Statistics, Prevention.
ESTUDO DE CASO: CARACTERIZAÇÃO DA EXPOSIÇÃO OCUPACIONAL AO RUÍDO NUMA TECELAGEM
ANA FREITAS, LILIANA COSTA, PATRÍCIA CAMPOS, NÉLSON RODRIGUES, ISABEL LOUREIRO, NÉLSON COSTA
Noise is a factor with great influence on the workers health, comfort and well-being. The occupational noise exposure in the textile industry is a current issue, therefore it was decided to characterize it in a Portuguese weaving company. Through the occupational noise evaluation, it was verified a high noise exposure, that exceeded the maximum legal limits, exposing the worker to a harmful occupational environment to his health. In order to help protecting the workers it was also conducted a study with the individual protection equipment to verify which one was best fitted to the current situation.Keywords: Occupational Noise, Personal Protection Equipment, Weaving.
ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN A CHEMICAL LABORATORY
ANDREIA FURTADO, EDUARDA FILIPE, ISABEL L. NUNES
In order to perform an analysis and risk assessment in a chemical laboratory it was established an integrated methodology, where a preliminary analysis based on hazard identification and characterization, followed by application of qualitative (cost-benefit analysis) and quantitative (EMKG-EXPO-TOOL, Stoffenmanager, additive model) methods were used to estimate the risk level of exposure to several chemicals. Three measures were applied in order to reduce exposure risk, namely the elaboration and use of one-page safety data sheets, personal protective equipment quick reference lists and storing and labelling procedures of aliquots. The use of a combination of assessment methods contributed to improve of the occupational safety and health conditions of the laboratory workers, thus contributing to improve the working conditions.Keywords: risk assessment, EMKG-EXPO-TOOL, Stoffenmanager, additive model, cost-benefit analysis.
AVALIAÇÃO DA EXPOSIÇÃO A CAMPOS ELETROMAGNÉTICOS EM PROCESSOS DE SOLDADURA
ANTONIO GARRIDO, MARIA DINIS
Welding is used in a wide range of heavy and light industry, construction and maintenance, including vehicle construction. Workers using welding processes are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Recently it was published the Directive 2013/35/EU concerning the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to risk arising from EMF. The action levels (AL’s) for magnetic fields may be exceeded in both arc and resistancewelding. This study aims to assess the workers exposure to EMF in arc and resistance welding.Keywords: Electromagnetic fields. Arc welding. Resistance welding. Exposure.
ESTUDO DA SÍNDROME DE BURNOUT NOS BOMBEIROS PORTUGUESES
PAULO GASPAR, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better knowledge of the Burnout Syndrome within the Portuguese firefighter population. It will also refer to the relation between Burnout and work satisfaction. Despite the overallintention of the work is to study the entire Portuguese firefighter population, in this stage, only a sample of 39 elements from the operational corps within Alcabideche Firefighter Volunteers was studied. The investigation follows the model of analytical epidemiological studies used to exam associations formed by hypothesis of casual relation. The main intention is to identify, or measure de risk factors and its effects on the health of the operational firefighter within the Alcabideche Firefighter Corporation. It was used a cross-sectional analytic study, as it analyses, on a particular moment one specific population, trying to establish correlations and interferences between selected variables chosen regarding its importance on the firefighters health. It was used a specific questionnaire adapted from the MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory) method. The analyses results appointed for no significant statistic correlation between Gender, Age, and Working hours and the three dimensions of Burnout – exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficiency. This may be explained by the possible existence of protection factors namely: social support, proper working conditions and good relationships among colleges.Keywords: Burnout; Portuguese Firefighter, Maslach, MBI.
SETOR DA CONSTRUÇÃO EM PORTUGAL – TÍTULO HABILITANTE DE LABORAÇÃO VERSUS TÉCNICOS DE SEGURANÇA NO TRABALHO: ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO
FREDERICO GONÇALVES, PAULO ALVES DE OLIVEIRA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Over the past decades many workers benefited from improvements in their workplace’s safety and health. However, to support the disinvestment in this area the current economic and financial situation in Portugal has been used. The present work aims to demonstrate based on an exploratory study, the evolutionary capability of binomial state with qualified companies under the authorization to exercise the activity in construction sector, issued by the Portuguese Institute of Construction and Real Estate,IP (InCI) and the minimum affection framework in OHS personnel.Keywords: Prevention, Risk assessment, Occupational Safety, work safety technicians.
O SER HUMANO PODE CONTRIBUIR PARA A DEFINIÇÃO DE UM AMBIENTE TÉRMICO CONFORTÁVEL PARA ANIMAIS
SORAIA GONÇALVES, MÁRIO TALAIA
The purpose of this paper is the demonstration of thermal environment influence in a dairy farm, namely on milk production. In fact, thermal environment conditions may decrease milk production during some periods of a year. The best thermal conditions improvement can be arraigned from the human thermal sensation knowledge. From the humanbeing thermal sensation and collected data two capable expressions were developed to predict animal’s thermal sensation. A thermal colour scale and two thermal indexes were the tools used by the authors to analyse data.Keywords: thermal environment; ITHhu index, ITHan index, Thermal Comfort, milk production.
SHORT REVIEW CONCERNING HUMAN THERMAL MODELLING
JOANA GUEDES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Human thermal modelling started several decades ago and it still, nowadays, being a growing research area. Models application can go from ergonomics evaluation, occupational health and safety to hypertermical treatments in medicine. The aim of this work is to contribute with a short review in human thermal modelling by classifying the different kind of research that have been done in the area. A recent increase in scientific papers was found in the last 20 years. An high percentage of whole-body thermal models that can be used to solve many safety and hygiene issues, were also found. Their focus covers different areas as the study of the suitability of thermal environment at work, the safety in fire fronts, thermal stress predictors or exposure limit evaluators.
Keywords: thermoregulation, bioheat model, heat transfer, physiological response.
APPLICATION OF PROACTIVE ERGONOMICS UTILIZING DIGITAL PLANT METHODS BASED ON AUGMENTED REALITY AS A TOOL IMPROVING PREVENTION FOR EMPLOYEES
MICHAL HOVANEC, JURAJ SINAY, HANA PACAIOVA
This paper offers a view of present possibilities of modern ergonomics, and an application model of the proposed system in the digital environment. It also outlines future trends and visions using a proactive approach of modern ergonomics integrated with sustainable success management. The implementation of new approaches of ergonomics and occupational safety and health management assumes synergic effect brought by the harmony between proactive ergonomics and risk management in everyday working operations. It makes it possible to improve both safety and production quality. The application of innovative methods and progressive software tools enables plants to increase their production quality, to reduce the number of defective products, to identify risks in time, to increase the human factor safety and reliability before launching the actual operation of the system, as well as to prevent losses as early as in the pre-production phase.Keywords: ergonomics, human factor, digital plant, product life cycle – PLM Siemens, safety.
PALMILHAS DE CONTATO TOTAL E TRABALHO EM ORTOSTATISMO
SÉRGIO JORGE, FLORENTINO SERRANHEIRA
Occupations that require prolonged periods of standing are frequently a cause of pain and discomfort in the feet, legs, and lower back and they have been associated with increased reports of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. There are no means for predicting the effectiveness of a particular way in mitigating that discomfort but recently the interest in the effects of individual total contact insole on static postural stability in workers had increased. This study aimed to analyze the influence of foot orthoses (insoles) in comfort and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers that are predominantly in a static posture during professional activity, before and after the use of total contact orthoses. There were selected 31 workers of both sexes with occupations requiring long standing periods. In the first phase of the study the data of workers was collected by (i) completing a musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire, and (ii) foot characterization with a pedigraph, and a baropodometric modular electronic computerized static analysis without shoes and without insole (charge distribution by plantar surface). That allows the preparation of custom orthotics (insoles). At the second stage of the investigation, corresponded to the monitoring group using total contact insoles for a minimum of 60 days, an evaluation of musculoskeletal symptoms and the plantar surface loads distribution (surface pressure, mean and maximum pressure) was made. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon test on ” PASW Statistics vs18 .” Questionnaire results show at the first study moment that the musculoskeletal symptoms at the lumbar spine, ankles and feet were high in workers standing all day. At the second study phase (after using the insoles) an decreased levels of high intensity musculoskeletal symptoms at lumbar level (48 to 16%), and ankles and foots (44 to 8%) was observed. Baropodometric results show foot plant pick results decreased after using the insoles (p=0,000), and the average pressure after the use of insoles is lower than the mean pressure before (p = 0.008). As a conclusion, there is a substantial reduction of musculoskeletal complaints after use of total contact insoles in the study group. The use of custom insoles reduces the levels of foot plant maximum pressure, and medium pressure as result of a better load distribution and a better foot static balancing. This has potential ergonomic implications and can improve comfort and even workers health, showing productive and competitive advantages in WRMDs prevention.Keywords: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders symptoms; Ergonomics, Standing, Orthotics.
ERGONOMIC RISKS IN WOODWORKING PRODUCTION PROCESSES
HENRIJS KALKIS, VALDIS KALKIS, ZENIJA ROJA
In Latvia, similar to other places in the world, the number of work-related, musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) has grown rapidly in the last ten years. For the research Latvian woodworking branch has been chosen, which give a significant contribution to the development of economics. The aim of the research was to analyze ergonomics risks in woodworking manufacturing processes and develop the practical recommendations for lightening the physical load. The analysis of ergonomic risks in woodworking proceses revealed that the physical load of employees corresponds to hard and very hard workload evaluated by KIM method, but the lifted and moved mass exceeds the recommended limit more than twice, which is proved by results of The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analysis. After having estimated individual work phases, it was found out that the most serious risks are WRMSD due to manual handling, compulsory work postures, monotonous work operations, job intensity and physical overload. The practical recommendations were developed for improving the work organisation and minimizing the physical load.Keywords: physical, load, health, disorders, lifting index.
DESENVOLVIMENTO ANALÍTICO E NUMÉRICO DO FACTOR DE CORRECÇÃO PARA UM TERMÓMETRO DE GLOBO NEGRO DE 50 MM
ÂNGELA LEAL, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
To determine the WBGT index accordingly to the ISO 7243:1989 norm is recommended the use of a dark globe thermometer of 150 mm diameter. However the market offers equipment that uses smaller dark globes. This study has the objective of verifying if there are differences between the temperatures of dark globes using different equipment. And in this case also establish an equation that allows us to determine a correction factor that could be used when using dark globes with different sizes from the standard one. In this study, it was possible to observe differences between the measurements made with different dark globes, where in fact it’s not possible to determine directly the WBGT index from measurements with dark globes different form the standard one, without using a correction factor. For the study, it was used a standard dark globe thermometer (Delta OHM HD2307.0 RTD) and three dark globe thermometers of 50 mm diameter (Casella Microtherm Heat Stress WBGT; Casella B.S.2842:1992 AO5497; Delta OHM HD32.2 WBGT Index). The equipment was placed in front of a heat source, built with 56 lamps (dichroic halogen lamps ø51mm GU5,3 brand OSRAM) at different distances. It was determined the calibration curve for each equipment for the interval of temperatures measured. For the calculation of the WBGT index, it’s necessary introduce a correction factor suitable for the correct transposition of the temperature of the dark globe of 50 mm (Tgn50) for the standard globe temperature of 150 mm (Tgn150).Keywords: WBGT Index, Temperature globe 150mm, Temperature globe 50mm.
INSTALAÇÃO DE FRENTES DE TRABALHO EM AUTO-ESTRADAS EM UTILIZAÇÃO: – O RISCO DE ATROPELAMENTO
MARIA LIMA, MIGUEL TATO DIOGO
Maintenance highway work zones represent hostile tasks, as workers stand very close to the high-speed traffic. Installing, maintaining and removing those work zones are even harder operations, as they are usually carried out with workers crossing carriageway on foot, carrying signs and equipment. The main objective of this study was to assess the items that must be considered at the planning stage, so that work systems provide both drivers and workers safety. This objective has been met by carrying out a literature review, contacting authorities, employers and engineers, and analysing work zones safety planning documents and observing maintenance highway working zones. The analysis carried out showed that the planning stage is of greater importance, and that planning meetings with police and highway authorities, road management engineer, contracting supervisor, health and safety coordinator, main contractor and the operatives team should be undertaken. Traffic flows and its characteristics, local and weather conditions, training, should be assessed at the design and planning stage.Keywords: design, planning, maintenance, traffic; safety.
ANÁLISE DA APLICABILIDADE DAS MEDIDAS DE AUTOPROTEÇÃO EM EDIFÍCIOS ESCOLARES EXISTENTES – ESTUDO DE CASO
JOÃO PAULO LOPES, PAULO ALVES DE OLIVEIRA, PAULO SANTOS, MÓNICA DIAS-TEIXEIRA
The implementation of self-protection measures in schools, should be a constant concern, since this type of establishment is frequented by a large number of people. The present work aims analysing the applicability of selfprotection measures in school buildings, having as object of study the Secondary School Dr. Joaquim Gomes Ferreira Alves, located in Valadares, Vila Nova de Gaia (PT). An evaluation of the existing conditions was performed regarding the Fire Safety in Buildings regulations. This work allowed detecting some legal failures, including the implementation of self-protection measures, which were presented by the proposed improvements such as the Internal Security Plan. This work has shown the difficulties on the implementation of Fire Safety regulations for existing buildings, the need to carry out identical work in all schools, which may justify the necessity to update the actual regulation.Keywords: Fire Safety, Self-Protection Measures, Schools, Existing Buildings.
REDUCTION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS AFTER IMPROVING PATIENTS TRANSFER TECHNIQUES
ALBERTO VILLARROYA LÓPEZ
Caregivers are frequently required to undertake tasks of heavy lifting at hospitals. For that reason, this sometimes leads to bear high physical load on the musculoskeletal system. The objective of this study is to minimize the risk of injury of the caregivers of the Lucus Augusti University Hospital that may occur during manual handling or transfers, focusing on specific training. The used methodology included the identification of the risk of injury from those manual handling activities, the risk assessment method chosen was MAPO. The obtained results showed that the risk levels of the evaluated units of the hospital, referring to the formation factor, were moderate and high. Various sessions of specific training were designed, teaching how to safely perform patient transfers, reducing the risk of injury. After training, there was an evident reduction of musculoskeletal problems reported by the participants.
Keywords: training programme; patient´s transfer; ergonomics; hospitals; MAPO.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY LEVELS IN THE CONSTRUCTION FORMWORK & FALSEWORK MARKET
ANTONIO LOPEZ-ARQUILLOS, JUAN CARLOS RUBIO ROMERO, JESUS A. CARRILLO-CASTRILLO
In civil construction projects, Occupational Health and Safety in the design and use of formwork/falsework is not properly addressed frequently. Aim of current research is to analyze the opinion of the professionals from formwork/falsework companies about the design and use of formwork/falsework. A Likert-scale survey was distributed between some manufacturing formwork companies. Questions were divided in the following categories: a) Design phase b) Construction phase. Results showed that safety and final cost are considered during the design of the formwork, but customers prefer a cheap product before a safe product. In opinion of the manufacturers, users do not follow instructions about the product.Keywords: Construction, safety, falsework, formwork.
SEVERITY OF ACCIDENTS IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR WORKSHOPS
ANTONIO LOPEZ-ARQUILLOS, JUAN CARLOS RUBIO ROMERO, JESUS A. CARRILLO-CASTRILLO
The present research develops a statistical analysis on occupational accidents in automobile repair workshops based on a total number of 89954 registered accidents in a period of 5 years. Variables studied were severity of accidents and, deviation. Contingency tables methodology was carried out using the SPSS program in its version 19. The deviation “Loss of control of machinery” obtained the worst results in terms of fatalities once the accident happened. Preventive measures must be implemented in repair workshops in order to prevent accidents related to main deviations.Keywords: Accident, deviation, automobile, repair, ESAW variables.
EXERCÍCIOS DE EVACUAÇÃO NUMA IPSS COM QUATRO VALÊNCIAS
ANA LÚCIA LOURENÇO, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, PAULO ALVES DE OLIVEIRA
In a fire situation, the safety of the individuals may depend on their one displacement to a safe place. The present study focuses on evacuation conditions analysis in case of fire, on a Private Institution of Social Solidarity with four valences from children to seniors. Was performed a needs evaluation on two levels: logistical conditions and available resources to carry out the evacuation. A survey was done, person by person, about their needs, capabilities and skills. Finally was given theoretical and practical training on evacuation. Over the evacuation drills were recorded travel speed and any problems occurred with the different individuals during these tests. It was observed a relation between individual characteristics and the travel speed and, also, an increasing evacuation time when there are people’s agglomerations. Regarding the evacuation speed, the measured values were lower than those presented in the literature. Such a discrepancy points to the need to clarify the reasons and for more and better research in this area of growing importance due to current demographic trends.
Keywords: Children; Safety Teams; Evacuation; Elderly; Travel speed.
RISK ANALYSIS IN FARMS OF PORTUGUESE NORTHERN REGION: PRELIMINARY STUDY
ANGELA MACEDO, LILIANA MOURA, OSVALDO MACHADO
Introduction: Agriculture is one of major sectors in importance in the county of Gondomar (Portugal). There are 553 farms, from which 73% were classified as small farms (1-5 acres), 50% held mixed productions, and 59% were dedicated to temporary crops. The workforce is mainly part-time work (78%), and most workers are family members. Most work is done manually, and only 82% of the farms have a tractor. There were 75 vehicle accidents, 40 serious victims, and seven minor victims recorded in 2011; and 23 fatal accidents in 2012. Objectives: The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary description of working conditions in farms located at Northern Portugal, considering that agriculture is the second sector in number of accidents. Methodology: Two farms located in Gondomar were visited. After description of all activities performed in each farm was received, checklists were applied following William Fine’s method of risk analysis, as well as analysis of noise and vibration levels, and complemented with proposed good practices. Results and Discussion: Farmers are exposed to ergonomic risks mainly by uncorrected postures and repetitive movements; they are exposed to chemicals without protection measures – e. g. use of glasses, mask, gloves and appropriate suits would indeed be easy to implement; the exposure limit values for noise risk during task involving machines were exceeded (87.6 dB(A)), but not for vibration risk (0.4 m/s2 for entire body and 4.2 m/s2 for hand-arm). The noise and vibration exposure levels were higher for old tractors. Conclusions: There is a poor occupational safety culture within farmers of this study. Many risks found can easily be reduced or even eliminated by applying preventive or corrective measures. It will be crucial that awareness campaigns and formal training are offered to workers in this sector.Keywords: agriculture, occupational safety, noise, vibration, machine, PPPs.
REPRESENTAÇÕES DE POLÍCIAS MUNICIPAIS SOBRE A EXPOSIÇÃO A RISCOS PSICOSSOCIAIS
FÁBIO MARQUES, HERNÂNI VELOSO NETO
This paper focuses on representations of exposure to psychosocial risks in the activity of the Municipal Policemen. These representations were collected in a group of professionals that belong to the Municipal Police of a city of the metropolitan area of Porto, through the application of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire validate to the Portuguese population. Psychosocial risks have become, nowadays, due to significant changes in the work, a challenge for health and safety professionals. Are present in various professions, not being the Municipal Police professionals an exception. The literature has not focused significantly on this dimension, at least in a comprehensive and integrated logic. With the analysis performed in the Municipal Police department studied was evident that psychosocial risks are an ever-present reality in everyday life of these professionals and that they are aware of this exposure. Nevertheless, there is no risk assessment in the service, neither measures to avoid or prevent these risks.Keywords: Municipal Policemen, Psychosocial Risks, Copenhagem Psychosocial Questionnaire.
CUSTOS E BENEFÍCIOS NA SAÚDE LABORAL (REVISÃO)
RICARDO MARQUES, CAROLINE PRÜFER, HELENA PEREIRA, PEDRO SOARES, RUI GARGANTA
Several empirical studies suggest the existence of economic and financial benefits of investing in occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations. However, companies tend to invest below the optimal level in OSH. The accident rate, despite being widely used, is an imperfect indicator of the level of risk in the workplace or on the job, because it’s based on past events and is subject to random events that can mitigate or exacerbate the perceived risk. In response to these limitations, insurance companies use other indicators to prospectively evaluate the risk of injury, such as (i) the availability of information on the health of employees and the jobs security, (ii) the existence of protection and safety services and a full-time OSH responsible and (iii) the existence of individual or collective safety equipment. The analysis performed has pointed out some common points between insurance companies, allowing a stylized portrait of this system of incentives. Most insurance companies introduces specific conditions for access to the incentives system or to be subject to penalties. The condition that appears to have some privilege on risk assessment is the rate of accidents. Despite the merits recognized by a system of economic incentives based on private insurance sector competition arrangements, their peculiarities hinder the extension of economic incentives to specific investments such as employees training in labor safety and occupational health, the adoption of more modern and ergonomic equipment, or certification of companies OSH management systems. The impact of these factors on lack of risk of injury or occupational disease is consensually accepted as relevant, but their qualitative nature makes it difficult to build a relationship of proportionality with the variations in premiums, as with a quantitative indicator such as past accidents. Is the possibility of improving the loss ratio indices, which gives access to explicit economic benefits and which encourages companies to improve their global OSH management system.Keywords: Health; Safety; Insurance; Investment; Accident.
EFEITO DO ESFORÇO SUBMÁXIMO INTERMITENTE NA PERFORMANCE INDIVIDUAL EM DIFERENTES AMBIENTES TÉRMICOS
C. CELINA T. MARTINS, JOANA C. C. GUEDES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Construction industry is one of the most susceptible to heat stress due to outdoor working. This article aims to show the general results of tests performed with different levels of metabolism in different conditions of thermal environment, simulating construction industry’s light and heavy work on Cape Verde islands. The effects of thermal environment on the performance of workers, taking into account individual timing characteristics of work and rest were analysed. Assays were performed in a climatic chamber. In carrying out heavy work at high temperatures, the results show that the task time decreases while the resting time between working cycles increases, thus decreasing the productivity. In heavy work at low temperature, and in light tasks in both thermal conditions, working cycle’s time does not changes significantly and is longer, but the resting time between each cycle increases. This study shows important findings for the construction industry in Cape Verde. However, the results should be significantly deepened in these and other conditions of thermal environment for their interest for different economic activities.
Keywords: Heat, Construction, Productivity, Thermal environment, Heat stress.
ASPECTOS COGNITIVOS CHECKLISTS AUTOMATIZADOS CHECKLISTS TRADICIONAIS – DILEMA ESCOLHA, PRÁTICA, AERONAVES AUTOMATIZADAS
EDGARD MARTINS, LAURA BEZERRA MARTINS, ISNARD MARTINS
Callout is a verbalization for safety guidance between the pilots on a particular at the pre-flight procedure or at some phase of flight. In an attempt to reduce the risk for mode confusion some operators have required flight crews to callout all flight guidance automation mode changes. Increasing debates had been occurred like consequence of using automatic devices in new airplanes where pilots disagree of this type of verification (checking) so it do not represents a real actor on moderns aircrafts. The traditional procedures like callout are more and more chosen at several phases of the flight instead of using automatized checklists-paper less in glass cockpits. There is clearly a polemic that points to the area where the problems confronting human-machine automation in modern aviation. In our studies for the degree of doctor we conducted a discipline called “Operationalization of Signs and Symbols” where we had the opportunity to discuss these checklists used in aviation and their respective impacts in cognitive processes.Keywords: cognitive processes, automation, interactional analysis.
COGNIÇÃO DISTRIBUÍDA E A ASSINCRONIA DE MÁQUINAS E DE HUMANOS CONDUZINDO A ACIDENTES
EDGARD MARTINS, ISNARD MARTINS, LAURA MARTINS
Prior to automation, there was only one responsible for control of the aircraft: the crew. The pilots received the information of various sources such as the result of interactions with the environment of the aircraft. At anterior time, learning enabled the pilot to treat all information directly from the instruments, from the external environment and from the machine-aircraft that converged for the pilot all the informations. So he takes measures by applying commands to the aircraft. Today the tasks of piloting highly automated aircraft are effectively distributed among pilots and onboard computers. And each of these control components must be prepared for their tasks. The knowledge for operationalizing the flight control is distributed in actions supported by human and on-board computers in decision making, including procedures at critical moments. Human actions are anchored on knowledge and actions promoted by computers. This type of automation supports another type of “knowledge” converted into formal procedures, which are implemented thru computer programs. Part of this program is used to assist pilots to control these aircraft but has also has a repertoire of procedural alternatives for emergencial situations. We could make an analogy with the learning and the experience of the piloting systems that are anchored in situations of the deep history of the aviation that reflect the best technical riding. But also include prior knowledge of risk situations , when they happen, are evaluated by computers , “defending “ and blocking the aircraft procedures performed by pilots but were not previously planned but which may eventually lead to accidents . These procedures are deployed in new aircraft to correct dangerous situations. This scenery is finally named the distribution between human cognitive processes and computers in modern aircraft.Keywords: distributed learning, asynchrony, causality of accidents.
O IMPACTO DA RETÓRICA EM RELATÓRIOS E DESCRITIVO DE EVENTOS CRÍTICOS
ISNARD MARTINS, EDGARD MARTINS, LAURA MARTINS
Subjective concepts of probability permeate and guide our thoughts and actions. This study provides an assessment of the degree of confidence that, in law, we can have about the truth of some proposition or the occurrence of certain events, which respondent can influence and distort the record of facts reported, based on the subjective judgment of quantifications. Diversification in the form of describing an event, as well as their interpretation depends on previous concepts, experiences and culture of the interlocutors involved. The subjective probability also occupies a prominent place in reporting events, accidents and reports of criminal activities. Rhetorical techniques not only influence the reader to particular conclusions, but also prevent the accident investigators understanding the full context of the failure. Accidents need to be understood in terms of global interactions between people, machines and the environment. They are typically not the result of any single failure across a component. In particular, simply can not be understood like causality of errors.Keywords: Human Error, Ergonomics, Rhetoric.
DISTANCE EDUCATION ENVIRONMENTS: AN ERGONOMIC VISION
ISNARD MARTINS, EDGARD MARTINS, LAURA MARTINS
Comparative studies aim to identify, describe and evaluate conceptual and technological innovations focused on the continuous training of students with emphasis on distance education methodologies and tools. The learning process in web-based instructional models becomes a complex commitment to educator, just as the blackboard and the chalk paradigm had been in the past, when the blackboard and chalk were deemed the formal means of transfer of knowledge between the professor and the student in the traditional school environment. Breaking this paradigm is just the initial step to accept the “Invisible School” and the “remote” teacher, who can be “turned on and off” by the students, according to their time constraints and learning conveniences, which are as flexible as the selection of roadmaps on the development of the curriculum frameworks of what should be learned, and where to learn, with whom to learn and when to learn. Some Distance Education environments are being designed by web-designers and html language programmers, and it is expected that the final product, besides presenting a friendly interface and pleasant visual, can also present a pedagogical environment and ergonomic relationships with its users.
ACIDENTES DE TRABALHO POR ESFORÇOS EXCESSIVOS OU MOVIMENTOS INADEQUADOS NAS INSTITUIÇÕES PÚBLICAS DE SAÚDE PORTUGUESAS
MATILDE DELMINA DA SILVA MARTINS, MARIA DO CÉU BARBIERI DE FIGUEIREDO, TERESA ISALTINA GOMES CORREIA
Introduction: In health institutions there are several risks, many of them related to the activity developed. Inappropriate movements or excessive efforts are next to pinprick the most frequent cause of accidents at work in the health institutions. Objective: to analyze the occupational accidents notified by inappropriate movements or excessive efforts in public health institutions in Portugal in the years 2009 and 2010. Materials and methods: A retrospective crosssectional study, for the period of January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. The sample consisted of 2101employees of Portuguese public institutions who had accident by overexertion or improper movement and notified. The information was obtained after authorization by the director of the ACSS, using the anonymous records of the inquiry service of accidents at work by the Ministry of Health, and recorded in a database program developed in Excel by ACSS. The data were transported and analyzed on the computer program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 21.0 version for Windows, using the descriptive statistics for the description of the variables and the inferential statistics, Chi-square test and Kruskal-vallis, to determine the association between absences to work and the number of days lost through the remaining variables. Results and discussion: there have been a total of 2101 accidents by overexertion or improper movement. The year of 2010 and hospitals registered the largest number of notifications 1163 (55.4%) and 2017 (96%), respectively. The highest prevalence was found in the professional group of Operational Assistants (Auxiliary Medical a Action) 1016 (48.4%), in females 1624 (77.3%), with lower schooling at ninth grade 941 (44.8%), with more than 10 years of service time 872 (41.5%), perform shift schedule 1456 (69.3%) and aged over 40 years 1059 (50.4%). The accidents occurred on average to 12.0 hours ± 5.2 hours, in the first three hours of the start of work 1062 (50.6%), in the first two days of work in relation to the last day of weekly rest 995 (45.0%) and inpatient services 939 (44.7%). The most frequent type of injury were sprains and muscle sprains 975 (46.7%) and the body part most affected by this type of accident was the trunk 1108 (52.7%). Caused absence to work 1322 (62.9%), totaling 49152 days on average missed 24 days per accident. Statistically significant association was found between absences to work and the professional group, the level of schooling, age and type of injury. The same association was verified for the average number of days lost. Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of accidents by overexertion or improper movement. Other studies are suggested to improve the knowledge on the occurrence of the accident, the reality of care, and the results of preventive and interventive actions.Keywords: Accidents Occupational, Occupational Health, Occupational Risks, Health Facilities, Physical Exertion.
RESISTÊNCIA AO ESCORREGAMENTO DOS PAVIMENTOS TÁCTEIS – PREVENÇÃO DE QUEDAS
JOÃO MARTINS, MARIA EUGÉNIA PINHO
Tactile ground surface indicators (TGSI), as any other pavement, should fulfil the function they were designed for, and grant their users´ safety. Slipping is recognized as one of the main causes of falls and injuries and, therefore, the use of slip resistant ground surfaces is essential for their prevention. This paper presents the results of preliminary slip resistance tests conducted in a “Corten” steel plate with truncated domes for warning surfaces, by using a British Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester. The results show that slip resistance values (SRV) of the TGSI tested vary according to the way the test is performed. Since preventing slip-related accidents mostly depends on the slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces, more tests must be performed by using either the herein used or other methodologies, as foreseen for authors’ further research.
Keywords: accessibility; tactile ground surfaces indicators, universal design, slip resistance.
TRABALHO ISOLADO. UM FATOR SUBESTIMADO NA PREVENÇÃO
MARIA LUISA MATOS, PAULA SANTOS, FERNANDO BARBOSA
The practice of isolated work is so widespread in the modus operandi of the industry in general that it often becomes overlooked. For this reason, its definition, its legal framework, its institutionalization, or even its prevention, are difficult to manage and implement. In this sense, the objective of this study is to provide a framework on this kind of work, making a review of the main activities and associated risks, without forgetting psychosocial risks, or how to proceed in situations of accident or emergency. This paper gives suggestions for preventive measures that include some technologically advanced equipment. Protecting workers who perform isolated tasks and preventing situations of personal risk is currently technologically possible and there are specialized companies in the market that can provide effective solutions, enabling rapid assistance in case of accident.Keywords: Working alone, lone workers, prevention, emergency.
EXPOSIÇÃO PROFISSIONAL A RADIAÇÕES IONIZANTES EM CARDIOLOGIA DE INTERVENÇÃO
TIAGO MATOSO, EMA LEITE, SUSANA CONSCIENCIA, OLENA SHAPOVALOVA, LUÍS GALAIO, MARIA ANA FRAZÃO
Diagnostic and therapeutic interventional cardiac procedures are increasing. In these procedures, image systems inlude the use of ionizing radiation to allow internal body visualization and guide medical personnel in its execution, so occupational exposure to ionizing radiation may occur. The aim of this study was to assess exposure doses to ionizing radiation in two interventional cardiology units (hemodynamic and pacing) of a central hospital, in order to identify the areas of higher exposure risk and the professional groups more exposed. Other objective was to try to understand the underlying causes that can lead to monthly doses higher than reference values, between 2007 and 2012. A retrospective study was carried out, in which individual annual dosimetric doses and accumulated doses of whole occupational exposure for each professional were analyzed. The results show that, in both units, the medical personnel was the professional group with higher average accumulated doses, higher maximum values, higher number of years in which doses surpassed the reference value of 20 mSv, and higher number of times in which monthly doses surpassed the reference value of 2 mSv (dose deviations). We investigated causes of registered dose deviations between 2007 and 2012, concluding that in many cases, these didn’t correspond to real exposure doses, rather than inadequate dosimeter use. We conclude on the importance of systematically reviewing dose deviations and the importance of providing training in correct dosimeter use to all exposed professional groups. Based on these results, we also concluded that is difficult to identify the unit of higher exposure risk. Nevertheless, we can observe that, in both units, ionizing radiation exposure can occur, which stresses the importance of safe working practices and protection measures implementation.Keywords: interventional cardiology, radiological protection, dose assessment.
ABORDAGEM DA ERGONOMIA NAS ATIVIDADES DAS EQUIPES DE RESPOSTA À EMERGÊNCIA EM LANÇAMENTO DE VEÍCULOS AEROESPACIAIS
LEONARDO MEDEIROS, RICARDO CARVALHO, GUILHERME SILVEIRA, MAURICIO ALCÂNTARA, PAULA SANTOS, MARIA DANTAS
The present study approaches complex and potentially dangerous systems, and the concern to manage crisis situations and disasters. With a focus on Aerospace, the aerospace vehicle launch activities, was used as a field of study Centro de Lançamento da Barreira do Inferno (CLBI), applying fundamentals of ergonomics through the Ergonomic Analysis Work (EAW) method. The article aims to analyze the activity of emergency teams through crisis situations simulated in order to improve reliability, the level of resilience and therefore the level of security of these operations. The results pointed to recommendations through a diagnosis in order to remodel the emergency training simulated.Keywords: ergonomics, AET, aerospace, emergency, training.
PROTOCOLOS DE ATUAÇÃO E PROCEDIMENTOS DE EMERGÊNCIA EM UNIDADES PRESTADORAS DE CUIDADOS DE SAÚDE
ANTÓNIO MEIRELES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, A. SÉRGIO MIGUEL
Being Health a pillar of society, to ensure that institutions of this nature are prepared to respond and recover from possible emergency situations is a task not only of the institution itself , through organizational and/or structural measures , but also of the State and regulatory institutions through mechanisms such as legislation , policies , standards , among others. Due to the complex nature of these organizations, it is essential to adopt preventive measures to minimize the existent risk and prepare its occupants for possible emergencies. The emergency management is characterized by high variability and unpredictability and should be managed at different scales, in time and space, but also, using all available means, in order to give a quick and appropriate response. Therefore, there is a need for complementary tools that allow an intervention at the level of awareness, preparation and organization of the occupants, optimizing the response procedures. This paper describes the result of applying a methodology (emergency protocols) to a health care facility. The complexity associated with these institutions was considered, respecting the structure and organization of the existing emergency management. It was attempted, with the development of this work, to adapt it to the existing measures and means, the Action Protocols and the respective Procedures. It was possible to establish Action Protocols for the different emergency situations, which were considered, creating the expected structure.Keywords: emergency, management, health care facilities, procedures, protocol.
AVALIAÇÃO ERGONÔMICA DO TRABALHO REALIZADO EM UM LABORATÓRIO DE INFORMÁTICA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA PARAÍBA
MARIA MELO, RAISSA NEGREIROS, ANA NEVES
Ergonomics is a field of study related to the understanding of interactions among human beings and systems, providing suitability, practicality and safety for the use of these environments. It is through the ergonomic evaluation that people are able to get a diagnosis of the physical conditions of a job, especially the one related to furniture and thermal, acoustic and luminous conditions, which are the primordial points of people’s welfare and productivity. Thus, this paper presents the results of an ergonomic evaluation conducted in a computer lab in a higher education institution. The methodology adopted, measurements of environmental variables (thermal, acoustic and luminous), the physical space and furniture, have shown that the environment researched presents points which are not consistent with the recommendation of regulatory standards (NR 17 and NBR 9050) and the concepts of an environment ergonomically appropriate.Keywords: Work Conditions, People’s Welfare and Productivity, Environment Ergonomically Appropriate.
ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DE RISCO COMO FERRAMENTA DE REDUÇÃO DA OCORRÊNCIA DE ACIDENTES
MARIA BERNADETE FERNANDES VIEIRA DE MELO, FRANCISCO FORMIGA DE SOUZA, KELLY CHRISTINE SILVA DE LIMA, ADRIANO DAVID MONTEIRO DE BARROS
The Preliminary Risk Analysis is a semi quantitative analysis to identify the potential risks and the likely accidental events, establish controls and follow-up actions, being an essential tool to achieve the desired security levels and represents a support in the decisions of the managements. The purpose of this article is to describe through safety indicators, the effectiveness of the implementation of the Preliminary Risk Analysis (PRA) in combating the accidents in the food industry. This is a case study, where the records of occurrences of accidents were collected from 2010 to 2012, where one can observe that, by applying this tool, a reduction of 63.89% of the occurrences of accidents related the main risk factors identified by the PRA, in addition, it was found that the preventive actions were disseminated for jobs with the aim of improving the health and safety of operators.Keywords: Risk Identification, Accident at work, Risk Analysis.
ASPECTOS DE SEGURANÇA DO TRABALHO NO SETOR ELÉTRICO DO BRASIL
MIGUEL MELO, ANA ALMEIDA, FRANCISCO MASCULO, LUIZ BUENO DA SILVA, ANTONIO CASTELLAR
The risks associated with working in the electric power systems sector are going through many electrical problems, falls, transportation, occupational and others in order to map these hazards prevention possible. The aim of this paper is to describe indicators of work safety in the electric sector and analyses a case study of an electric power company in Brazil. It was analysed several individual variables, such as age of the victim, day and month of the accident; geographical area, time absenteeism and others. In conclusion despite all the technical aspects of prevention are known, work-related accidents continue to occur showing the need for more research in this area.Keywords: Work Safety Indicators; Safety in Electric Power Sector; Safety Management.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN PORTO ELDERLY CARE CENTERS: THE GERIA PROJECT ANSWERS
ANA MENDES, LÍVIA AGUIAR, CRISTIANA PEREIRA, MARIA PAULA NEVES, DIANA MENDES, ROSSANA MORONI, STEFANO BONASSI, JOÃO PAULO TEIXEIRA
Indoor environments are often considered to be among the healthiest and safest places, particularly for older individuals who possess unique health needs and environmental sensitivities. It is estimated that people spend 80 to 90% of their day indoors in developed countries, and elderly are likely to spend even more time indoors, thus, indoor air pollutants may have special significance for this age group, even at low concentrations due to long exposure periods. In addition indoor air quality (IAQ) is a key indoor factor that might affect comfort, health and occupants’ performance. This study explored the impact of IAQ and buildings assessment in 22 elderly care centers (ECCs) in Porto, Portugal. Indoor environmental parameters were measured twice (winter & summer) in 141 ECCs rooms. These areas were assessed for IAQ chemical and biological contaminants. It was also performed a building and ventilation characterization survey. Our results point out that: (i) Overall PM2.5 mean concentration of the 22 ECCs was above the reference levels in both seasons; (ii) TVOC, Bacteria, CO and CO2 showed significantly higher indoor levels compared to outdoor, in both seasons; (iii) PM10, TVOC, Bacteria and CO2 presented significant differences between season; (iv) Bacteria and CO2 showed significant differences between ECC rooms; (v) 4% of fungi samples were positive for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus. niger. Ongoing analysis is focusing on the interaction between IAQ variables with building and ventilation characteristics.Keywords: Indoor air quality; Elderly care centers, Building assessment, Ventilation practices, Older people.
THE IMPORTANCE OF OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS (OAE) IN A HEARING CONSERVATION PROGRAMME FOR NOISE EXPOSED WORKERS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
DANIELA MONTEIRO, JOÃO ALMEIDA, PEDRO AREZES
The existence of high noise in industrial environments is a reality that becomes increasingly clear in the present days. However, today there is also a bigger awareness of the effects noise has on the exposed workers and, in the last years, efforts have been made to prevent its occurrence. Even so, the hearing loss caused by noise exposure is still one of its major consequences of this type of exposure. The purpose of this study is to verify if otoacoustic emissions are suitable to be used to detect changes in the cochlea before any changes are reflected on the pure-tone audiograms usually performed on workers exposed to noise. This is done in order to demonstrate the importance of the inclusion of otoacoustic emissions in the hearing conservation programmes, by showing their importance to detect hearing changes. In this study, a preliminary test was applied, where it were considered both the application of a pure tone audiogram and the distortion product otoacoustic emissions. At the end of the study, it is possible to verify that otoacoustic emissions have a very interesting potential to be used in a hearing conservation programme, with the main purpose of perform an early detection of changes in the cochlear function of the noise exposed workers.Keywords: Otoacoustic emissions, Noise, Audiogram, Hearing conservation programme.
Análise das condições ambientais em uma empresa fabricante de gelo: estudo de caso
Luciano F. Monteiro, José W. Santos, Odelsia L. S. Alsina, Maria Betania Gama Santos, Veruschka V. Franca
Some work situations impose several exposure workers to environments considered unhealthy. In the branch of production of ice, it becomes necessary that employees be exposed to low temperature environments where thermal conditioning establish working arrangements under the cold, requiring ergonomic intervention and its articulation in relation to the damage and risks to health as well as control measures. It is in this context that the present study focuses the environmental work conditions by means of an Ergonomic Work Analysis – EWA, which addresses the conditions of the thermal environment, luminal, acoustic, vibration and air quality in the sector of bagging a manufacturer of ice. The analysis of data collected in this study showed that some parameters are outside the ergonomic standard established as an ideal, specifically within the thermal and acoustic context. From this analysis, appropriate ergonomics recommendations were listed, supported by the relevant legislations and standards, in order to ensure methodological consistency of the study.Keywords:health temperature, low environments, unhealthy ergonomics.
AVALIAÇÃO DOS RISCOS OCUPACIONAIS ASSOCIADOS À MOVIMENTAÇÃO MANUAL DE CARGAS NUMA EMPRESA FABRICANTE DE GELO: UMA ABORDAGEM EXPLORATÓRIA UTILIZANDO O MÉTODO NIOSH
LUCIANO F. MONTEIRO, JOSÉ W. SANTOS, ODELSIA L. S. ALSINA, MARIA BETANIA GAMA SANTOS, VERUSCHKA V. FRANCA
For many years, companies have neglected issues concerning the safety, hygiene and comfort of employees. To reverse this situation, Ergonomics has contributed in the most diverse labor activities, providing comfort and safety for the employees. The study involved the application of the NIOSH method to evaluate of occupational risks associated with manual material handling and methodology of Ergonomic Work Analysis – EWA to evaluate technical and organizational conditions of a workstation in a manufacturer of ice in the city of Aracaju, SE. Data collection was conducted through direct observation of the realization of the real work in consonance with the prescribed task, focusing on the biomechanics of work. The subsystems of Ergonomics studied involved system components man-task, structuring the work, the cognitive factors involved in the decision-making and organizational conditions of work. With the analysis of data, it was observed that, despite advances in technology and mechanization of tasks, many activities are still being carried out manually, and worse, improperly. The conclusions corroborate the valuation of health care with the employee through the implementation of actions that allow elucidate some biomechanical problems found at company, resulting in benefits for both the employee as for the employer himself.Keywords: Ergonomics; workplace, biomechanics of work, subsystems of ergonomics, mechanization of tasks.
AVALIAÇÃO DA POSTURA DE TRABALHO NO SETOR DE COSTURA ESTUDO DE CASO REALIZADO EM UMA FÁBRICA DE COLCHÕES
LUCIANO F. MONTEIRO, FELIPE R. NASCIMENTO, ODELSIA L. S. ALSINA
This work aimed to identify problems related to ergonomic risks previously detected in a mattress factory. In this case, the study was conducted in the sewing up of foam mattresses sector, where there is a predominance of muscular effort with serious posture errors. Exploratory analysis on the work of the sector points to situations that may endanger the health of workers, with regard to ergonomic risks related to prolonged and often inadequate posture, with constant requests for changes in the spine and upper and lower limbs. Previously the purpose of the study was explained to the workers and the area of high criticality was evaluated. The activities carried out by workers were observed on-site, registering every movement through digitalized images. Several complaints about pain in shoulders, legs and hands of the workers were detected in the first month of operator training in the sewing up sector. Observed working postures were classified as adequate, partially adequate and inadequate; it was found that almost all procedures had inadequate posture. From these observations it was possible to develop diagnostic and ergonomic recommendations such as: improved posture, positioning during the movement of the mattress, transportation of the product and in the act of sewing up the mattress. Finally, it was recommended the inclusion of preventive therapy through labor kinesiotherapy, at the workplace, in order to minimize and avoid future problems for employees and the company.Keywords: ergonomic risks; improper posture, kinesiotherapy, workplace.
VIBRAÇÃO EM MÁQUINAS AGRÍCOLAS: UMA REALIDADE A SER AJUSTADA
GUILHERME A. GOMES DE MORAES, JOÃO E. GUARNETTI DOS SANTOS, ANDRÉ L. ANDREOLI, JOSÉ A. CAGNON, VINÍCIUS, GEROMÉL MENEGHETTI
The present study aimed to develop a methodology for the collection, transfer, storage and processing of vibration levels emitted in jobs occupied in agricultural machinery. The reason of this work is the study the vibration dose applied to operators of heavy vehicles and its relation to occupational health. There is a need for the development and improvement of efficient tools in measuring vibration machine work, which minimize damage to health for operators.Keywords: vibration; agricultural machinery, job post, methodology, occupational health.
IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ILHAS TÉRMICAS NUMA CÉLULA DE PRODUÇÃO DE BOMBAS DE CALOR EM CONTEXTO INDUSTRIAL
MARIANA MORGADO, MÁRIO TALAIA, LEONOR TEIXEIRA
This work aims to demonstrate that thermal environment of an industrial chamber is influenced by free energy sources and the atmospheric conditions outside the building. To define the thermal pattern of the chamber two indexes were applied: ITH and EsConTer index. These results allowed thermal islands detection which characterizes hot environments that influence workers well-being. The health and safety department appreciated the results once some workers complaints were confirmed and that allowed initiating strategies to improve workplace conditions.Keywords: thermal environment; ITH index, EsConTer index, thermal comfort, thermal islands.
INTEGRATING SAFETY IN DESIGN PROCESS A CASE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to highlight the need of assuring product safety in the design process. For this aim the issues of safety design are presented. In the practical part an initial investigation of machinery design from safety point of view is carried out. This research is conducted on the basis of a questionnaire survey among shaping operators in industrial plants. Its results indicate that the most crucial safety aspects for operators concern technology and operation of machinery, and information, signal and control elements. In order to ensure the most efficient and effective level of them it is necessary to introduce changes to machinery in the design phase.Keywords: design, product, safety.
VALIDAÇÃO E CONFIABILIDADE DE UM QUESTIONÁRIO MUSCULOESQUELÉTICO PARA TRABALHADORES DA CONSTRUÇÃO DE EDIFICAÇÕES
HÉLIO NETO, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, BÉDA BARKOKÉBAS JUNIOR
Questionnaires on work related musculoskeletal disorders are applied in different working sectors. But, before that, they need to undergo a validation reliability process to confirm its applicability to a specific target audience. Thus, this paper aims to present a study of reliability and validity of Nordic questionnaire application, on construction workers.. A testretest approach using methods of descriptive statistics and Cronbach’s Alpha was used. Retest was done two week apart, to evaluate only those employees who had, at least, one complain. Data were analyzed taking into account the work done by the employees. It was found that, in general, the indices obtained are acceptable to ensure reliability and validity of the questionnaire, allowing its application for further studies.
TESTE / RETESTE DO QUESTIONÁRIO NORDICO NUMA INDÚSTRIA ALIMENTAR
HÉLIO NETO, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, JOSÉ TORRES COSTA, ANA COELHO, JOANA GUEDES, SARA PEREIRA, JOÃO PEDRO SILVA
Questionnaires validation is a way to demonstrate their reliability and scientific validity. Thus, this study goal is to analyze the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire reliability and validity in a food industry, from the test-retest method using the approaches of descriptive statistics and t-Test paired samples. For this, was determined whether the chosen sample reflected the population under study. The data were analyzed according to gender and workplace. The results showed that the demographics and musculoskeletal discomfort issues have a good correlation and excellent statistical significance, on the other hand direct questions to operators possess a level of acceptable or questionable reliability, since some indices t-Test were not calculated. Finally, the questionnaire is valid and reliable in a holistic perspective, however further analysis from other indices of reliability are desirable.Keywords: reliability; validation, questionnaire, musculoskeletal disorder, cheese production.
TREINOS E SIMULACROS – RESPOSTA À EMERGÊNCIA EM INSTALAÇÕES HOSPITALARES
MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES, PAULO GASPAR
Typically, organizations have some difficulty in implementing emergency response procedures, as these require the appropriate preparation, namely training and evacuation drills. In this context, it is important to plan properly all possible responses to emergency situations, to ensure that there is no need to act reactively. However, there are also training specific procedures, diverse and achievable, with the aim to enable the effective and efficient response to situations that require a reactive response, i.e. after the emergency situation becomes real. The case study concerns a hospital facilities with various services (surgery, psychiatry, among others), surgery rooms, outpatient consultations, intermediate and intensive care day hospital and hospital admissions. The whole structure is made with horizontal and vertical partitioning against fire. In every evacuation drill that was run, was performed the procedures set forth in Internal Safety Plan (PSI) of hospital facilities, but were also made some variations/deviations to it, with the purpose to find out possible loopholes for subsequent correction of the PSI and to educate workers about the fact that every emergency situation is unique, although there may be a certain type of conduct and response to resolve certain sets of same. Regardless of the theoretical knowledge that professionals of the hospital units may have in relation to procedures to execute when subjected to emergency situations, in particular that of fire, due to the fact of having to evacuate also patients in their care such procedures are not carried out with the promptness required. It is therefore important to perform periodic drills to ensure that the procedures are internalised and very well known, making their actions to take become natural. The evacuation drill required legally, will then test the quality of the response and demonstrate if the practice was enough and the objectives achieved. As more hospital personnel receive training, better will be the simulacrum response and consequently the reaction on emergency situations.Keywords: Hospital Fire Emergency, Drill, Simulacrum, Internal Safety Plan, Auto Protection Measures.
MELHORAR A PRÁTICA DE AEROSTEP NUM AMBIENTE TÉRMICO QUENTE
JOÃO NOGUEIRA, MÁRIO TALAIA
In this work is evaluated the thermal sensation felt by practitioners of the sport modality of AeroStep in a hot environment. In order to evaluate the pattern created by thermal indexes were identified 16 observation posts of thermohygrometric parameters in the room, namely the ITH and EsConTer. For the studied days the obtained results showed that the thermal environment of the gym is clearly influenced by external thermal environment and that the initial conditions of the thermal environment of the gym are determinant for an enjoyable sport practice.Keywords: thermal environment, ITH index, EsConTer index, thermal comfort, practice Aerostep.
AVALIAÇÃO HOSPITALAR DA CONCENTRAÇÃO DE GASES ANESTÉSICOS
PEDRO NORTON, MARIA NORTON, DANIELA XARÁ, SÉRGIO CARNEIRO
PROBLEMÁTICA ASSOCIADA À UTILIZAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE MOCHILA PARA TRANSPORTE DE MATERIAL ESCOLAR
ELSA OLIVEIRA, ISABEL LOUREIRO, MATILDE RODRIGUES, MANUELA SILVA
Load transportation is a common task in young students. They need to move to the schools personal objects, books and other stationery. However, this task can be the cause of musculoskeletal disorders in the students. In view of this, this work aims to characterize the problem of the backpack used by the students and to determine the Maximum Acceptable Weight (MAW) and the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for the task of backpack transportation, through a psychophysical approach. Students of the 7º, 8º and 9º classes were included. The study was divided in two different phases. In the first phase it was applied two questionnaires to analyse the problem of the different backpack used by the students. It was analysed issues related with the type of backpack used, its characteristics and students’ routines. The weight of the backpack, as well as the height and weight of 131 students were also determined. The results showed that backpack with two shoulder straps were the most used. However, several students only use one strap. The majority of the students reported to feel pain during the backpack transportation. In the second phase, it was determined the MAW and the RPE with a sample of 10 students. The task was to carrying the backpack with both shoulders, with the straps correctly adjusted to the body, during a pre-defined rout, according to the experimental procedure. The MAW determined by the students was 6.8 kg. The region of the shoulders was identified as presenting more pain during the task. This study emphasizes the need of a better awareness of the students and parents about this problem.Keywords: Maximum Acceptable Weight, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Pain, Psychophysical.
HOW TO GET TROUGH A CRISIS: A RESILIENT MODEL
MARIA JOÃO OLIVEIRA, RITA CAMPOS E CUNHA
Unexpected events trigger crises that can devastate organizations, cities and entire countries. There certain kinds of organizations that respond resiliently to crises like HROs. This paper presents an instrument made by two questionnaires that intends to measure an empirical model of learning with unexpected events through human resources management practices and mindfulness in a way that allows the development of a safety culture that will develop in to a reliable safety culture. We intend to develop the study in three different economic sectors: in the aviation, in hospitals and in moulds industry. We begin the phase of contacting the companies and we are expecting some answers. In the future we are expecting having some data. Multilevel analysis is suitable to measure the proposed empirical model.Keywords: Crisis management; HROs, Effective safety culture, Learning from crisis, HRM.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF NANOMATERIALS – (AGNPS) IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS
EROL PEHLIVAN, SERPIL EDEBALI, MOHAMMAD SHAHRIARI, PEDRO AREZES
The aim of this paper is to try out the existing knowledge on silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potential problem for environmental pollution and human health, taking into consideration the characteristics, and biological effects of AgNPs in aquatic systems. AgNPs are progressively used as antimicrobial additives in many products and may have adverse impacts on organisms when they unknowingly enter ecosystems. Due to AgNPs’ antiseptic properties; it is also widely used in cosmetics, food packaging, drug delivery systems, therapeutics, biosensors, etc. Ultimately, these nanoparticles end up in the environment during waste disposal. They potentially affect natural bacterial communities and oxidative stress is induced in organisms. The environmental effects of AgNPs are unknown and many studies on this subject are still conducting in some research laboratories. Therefore a more specific and systematic research work is needed to be carried out in the future to clarify the behavior of AgNPs in their different forms.Keywords: ENMs, silver, risk of nanomaterial, aquatic life.
MUDANÇA DE PARADIGMA NA UTILIZAÇÃO DOS MEIOS DE PRIMEIRA INTERVENÇÃO DO REGIMENTO DE SAPADORES BOMBEIROS DE LISBOA
ALEXANDRE PENHA, CELSO BAÍA, CARLOS SANTOS, JOÃO CAROLINO, PEDRO SOUSA, DAVID ROSADO
The Lisbon Fire Brigade (RSB), is a fire department under the jurisdiction of the municipality of Lisbon, whose origin dates back to the reign of King D. João I (XIV century) and that for centuries has served the people in their hours of greatest distress. Its main function, as the Portuguese law defines, is to ensure the activities of protection and relief, including fire fighting, rescue of the people and response in medical emergencies. Like most fire departments in Portugal, this institution, separates the operational response by the typology of the calls, assigning different means to each situation. It appears, however, that the means of the RSB, namely the fire trucks (VUCI), respond to a significant number of victims in life threatening situations, and they are often the first response on the scene or, in other times, they arrive simultaneously with the medical emergency vehicles responsibility of the National Institute of Medical Emergency (INEM), ending in this situation by acting in a complementary fashion. As common sense dictates, in lifethreatening situations every second counts, with our research we will assess the relevance in increasing the capabilities of this mean, which is considered of high criticality in the arsenal of the RSB, specifically in situations of medical emergencies (trauma, disease, sudden cardiac arrest, etc.).Keywords: emergency response; fire fighters; fire truck; medical emergencies.
TRABALHO NA INDÚSTRIA METAL-MECÂNICA: RISCO DE LESÕES NO SETOR DE PRODUÇÃO
ALEXANDRE CRESPO COELHO DA SILVA PINTO, DIEGO LUIZ DE MATTOS, VANESSA MARQUES CAMARGO, KARINA CRUZ GRUETER ORZZATTO, EUGENIO ANDRÉS MERINO
The incidence of accidents in the metal industry affecting hands is high. This study aimed to determine if the machines in the production of a metallurgical industry offered risk of hand injuries, investigating the risk factors that could contribute to the occurrence of these and identify the existence of collective protection and / or individual equipment in that sector . Data were collected from 22 workers in the production sector through a questionnaire. The results showed that 50 % of the subjects considered the conventional lathe machine that offered a greater risk of hand injuries, followed by the circular saw with 27.5 % of the reports, it was also found that 81.8 % of the subjects did not wear personal protective equipment and most machines (59.1%) had no collective protection equipment. However, often, ccidents occur because the employee is this very focused in their work, either through lack of experience or have not been properly trained. Therefore, the combination of the lack of protective equipment, training, attention, and failure in the design of machines, increases the magnitude of the hand injuries caused by accidents at work more than each factor alone.Keywords: Metallurgical, industrial accidents, hand injuries, protective equipment, prevention.
NORMA OHSAS 18001: 2007-OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT SERIES: ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DA IMPLANTAÇÃO EM EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS DO SETOR METAL MECÂNICO
SILVIA PINTO, RENATA PAES DA SILVA, JULIANA VIEIRA
Work-related diseases kill two million workers worldwide per year, according to the International Labour Organization (2013). Therefore, the adoption of international standards ensuring occupational health and safety of workers has increasingly relevance on the world stage. The main objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the critical aspects of the adoption of OHSAS 18001, Safety Management and Occupational Health, verifying empirical evidence that investments in the implementation of the standard has brought many benefits. The methodology used was the quantitative research of multiple cases in six Brazilian organizations with various programs implemented anagement (ISO 9001-Quality, ISO-14001-Environmental and OHSAS 18001-Health and safety at work). The “major difficulties” in the adoption of OHSAS 18001 found in companies that were part of the study were: the preparation and updating of documents for certification (up procedures and work instructions, identification of relevant legal requirements), the time availability of employees to program activities (time to identify the potential hazards of processes and risk assessment), the calculation of gains, alignment to business strategies, implementing training and understanding of the methodology. The study also demonstrated that investments in programs brought many benefits such as financial gains, various improvements in quality and productivity, greater customer satisfaction, internal and external, and also a significant decrease in the number of accidents in the surveyed companies.Keywords: OHSAS 18001, Occupational health and safety, Brazilian organizations.
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY – STANDARDIZATION
ANA PAULA PIRES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Most of our time is spent at the workplace. In this sense risk assessment becomes a key instrument for the welfare and health of workers. An accurate risk assessment can only be made if hazardous situations are acknowledged, by anticipating existing and arising dangers. In this context, it is important to define standardized methodologies, easy to apply and understand, and recognized by all. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the importance and need for a national uniformity in Portugal, regarding a methodology for identification, classification and implementation of a confined space entry system. It was showed that confined spaces have a risk likelihood of serious work related accidents. Risks found in these locations are diverse, constantly changing and depending on several factors. Following an accurate confined space program, accidents can be prevented on these workplaces. The definition, characterization and classification of confined spaces influences risk assessment and in that sense the methodology to be use. As a result of this investigation, it is recommended to standardize the definitions, classifying them into three categories (A, B and C), and the implementation, in Portugal, of a national system for confined space entry/ entries, so that an accurate risk assessment can be done, in order to prevent any accident.Keywords: confined space; authorized spaces, risk assessment, work related accidents.
OSHA CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
ANA PAULA PIRES, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
The right to life is one of the most important privileges and it must be guaranteed during labour activities. Supported guidelines issued by the International Labour Organization (ILO), legal and regulatory systems issued by the Occupational, Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and many others official bodies expect that all workers must be able to perform any task safely and that their well-being can never be under valuated. This article proposes an OSHA confined space entry regulation understanding, focusing only on two variables: atmospheric hazards and emergency rescue and their misconceptions, since they are considered the most responsible for accidents and injuries in confined spaces. The exact number of workers fatalities or injuries in these places annually is unknown. As a result of this study we realize that if an accurate confined space program is followed and mainly understood, accidents can be prevented in these workplaces.Keywords: confined space, emergency rescue, work related accidents, atmospheric hazards.
SINALIZAÇÃO DE EMERGÊNCIA ESPECÍFICA: A INEXISTÊNCIA E CONDICIONAMENTO À AFLUÊNCIA DA PESSOA INVISUAL
JORGE PISSARRA, RICARDO ALAIZ, ROGÉRIO RODRIGUES, DAVID ROSADO
Visual impairment currently affects about 285 million people worldwide. In Portugal, there are about 130 to 140 000 visually impaired and only 10 000 know how to read and write in braille, however the development of technologies to help visually impaired people, seems to be stagnant to ensure autonomy in emergency situations. This research follows a important line to respond to the lack of specific signs in case of emergency to a sample of the blind population. However, we want to know whether or not this condition influences the turnout and how blind people attending the semi-public spaces.Keywords: Blind; Signaling evacuation; Semipublic spaces; Autonomy.
INDEMNIFICATION OF DAMAGES IN THE ABSENCE OF COMPENSATION FUNDS FOR VICTIMS OF ASBESTOS IN SPAIN
GUSTAVO RAMOS POUSO
In Spain, unlike other European countries with a significant number of people affected by occupational diseases caused by exposure to asbestos, has not yet established a compensation system to compensate for damage caused by this carcinogenic mineral. Therefore, the victims have to go to the benefits paid by the National Health System or litigation for the recognition of the rights to which they are entitled.Keywords: asbestos, occupational exposure, compensation funds, indemnification.
ASBESTOS FIBRES EXPOSURE IN SHIPBUILDING’S AND SHIP-REPAIR
GUSTAVO RAMOS POUSO
Since ancient times, the mineral of asbestos is known for its incredible anti-thermal and fireproof properties, such as insulation material and by the ease of handling and processing. These conditions have made asbestos was used extensively in the construction industry, automotive, thermal energetic sector and the shipbuilding industry. In this way, thousands of people have been exposed to the risk of getting various diseases related to asbestos in their work; the slowness in developing normative in relation to exposure and lack scientific discoveries knowledge and/or training of risks and awareness both entrepreneurs and workers, have made that staff working in the shipyards until well entered the 1990s discover few years towards here that have contracted an illness during their working years active.Keywords: asbestos, fibers, shipyard.
PROJECT OF ERGONOMIC SHELVES FOR SUPERMARKETS IN A LEAN WORK ENVIRONMENT
VANESSA QUETA, ANABELA CARVALHO ALVES, NÉLSON COSTA
Due to the emerging need to reduce costs, companies are now embracing Lean’s tools and techniques in order to eliminate waste and increase productivity. Accordingly, this paper presents part of a work realized on industrial environment that includes the implementation of a continuous and sequenced material flow to the assembly line of a refrigeration systems company. To achieve this implementation, this work also included the creation of standard documentation, production leveling and the supermarkets design in order to avoid the lack of materials and to improve the organization of the work place. Before supermarkets creation, workers had difficult in identifing which part were needed, and at which time. Furthermore it was hard to transport the compressor units to the main assembly line, since they are heavy and large parts. These supermarkets were designed attending to the anthropometric dimensions of Portuguese population to achieve safety ergonomic work conditions.Keywords: Ergonomics; Anthropometrics, Lean Production, Supermarkets.
EXPOSIÇÃO OCUPACIONAL A COMPOSTOS ORGÂNICOS VOLÁTEIS (VOCS) E DOENÇAS RESPIRATÓRIAS ASSOCIADAS: UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA
ANA RAPOSO, JOSÉ TORRES DA COSTA, JOÃO FONSECA
Objectives: Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) even at low concentrations account for a significant proportion of respiratory diseases, adverse respiratory symptoms as well as an increased risk for allergic manifestations or more adverse health outcomes, such as cancer. These disorders acquired at work can be debilitating and can result in increased sick leave, reduced productivity, and even unemployment. However, the existing knowledge in this area is limited. Consequently, a systematic review is needed to assist in the targeting of future research. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the published studies in this area. Methods: A systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant literatures was conducted between the year 2008 and 2013. Using key search strings in Metalib database articles were screened in four steps. The studies were independently screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the final step, studies included were analyzed and critically appraised. Results: Nineteen studies were identified. Large heterogeneity in methodological design was observed. However, medical and technological approaches were manly identified. The majority correlated the measured VOCs levels in air samples with the levels measured near workers or under their breath zone and only four measured the VOCs just in the worker. Regarding occupational activities, was found an incidence in petrochemical and related areas: four studies focused especially on exposure to BTEX compounds which are considered very dangerous VOCs. Nine studies take into account smoking habits and nine studies investigated relationships between the levels of VOCs in the air and in blood or urine or both. Most studies failed to document or report the specific respiratory disease associated with the exposure and in several them clinical history was made merely using questionnaires and interviews. Conclusions: Results of the current review suggest that, despite the increasing importance of the occupational exposure to toxic substances, VOCs exposure have not been a research priority. Currently there are only a few studies of short-term exposure and exposure to low levels of VOCs and further research is essential to determine how different occupational groups might be affected. Greater attention to new biomonitoring methods is also required to optimize the methods in use.Keywords: VOCs, occupational, exposure, respiratory diseases.
DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL NOISE AND VIBRATION WEB LABORATORIES TO SUPPORT INTERACTIVE RISK PREVENTION LEARNING
MARÍA DOLORES REDEL-MACÍAS, ANTONIO JOSÉ CUBERO-ATIENZA, MARÍA PILAR MARTÍNEZ-JIMÉNEZ
In this paper, the use of a new web portal for telematic training in work-related risk prevention, together with experiment ones in the university teaching system, is explained. The computer programs (http://rabfis15.uco.es/proyectovibracion/) can be used from the online area of ceiA3 Virtual laboratory group internet server http://www.rabfis15.uco.es/lvct/ in order to be executed via web. These computer applications allows simulating the exposition of workers to occupational noise in several virtual situations step by step and in the same way as in the real laboratory, obtaining the corresponding calculations and plots. The main aim of this work is to provide new learning strategies and methodologies that motivate students and to give an attractive challenge for learning about occupational risk prevention. Through questionnaires, the students’ motivation and satisfaction levels were analysed showing a high level of satisfaction. Furthermore, it has been observed that students can prepare their experiment lessons before to the laboratory classes and revise them whenever, and as many times as they want to. Moreover, including the software application in the Safety and Industrial Hygiene course allowed score raising in the exams, decrease of exams failed and the dropouts. Consequently, by using this telematic application with the computer as a complementary educational tool, the quality of university teaching is greatly improved.Keywords: e-learning; noise; risk prevention; vibration; virtual laboratory, Industrial Hygiene.
REGRAS DE BOAS PRÁTICAS EM PROJETOS DE COFRAGENS
ARNALDO REIS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Formworks assembly and disassembling are some the most hazardous operations in construction. This article aims to present the state of the art for these operations. The presented results stem from the experience in safety management in construction sites and from a literature review, performed in over then fifty scientific databases and in international and national organizations from different countries all over the world. From this research, the solutions already implemented in three countries are highlighted. In the USA by the Scaffolding, Shoring & Forming Institute (SSFI), in Australia by the ACT Code of Practice for Formwork 2011 and in Spain by the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT) that produced four Technical Notes for Prevention (NTP) – NTP 834 / 845 / 836 / 837. Any of these documents, directed from designers to performers is, by itself, sufficiently clear, providing the necessary elements for safe formworks, in assembly, use and disassembly procedures.Keywords: construction; design, assembly, disassembly, safety.
SEGURANÇA EM FOGÃO DOMÉSTICO: ANALISANDO O PONTO DE VISTA DO USUÁRIO
J R TABORDA RIBAS, MARIA LUCIA OKIMOTO, AURORA CAMARGO DALPIN, MARIA CRISTINA PACHECO
Statistics related to domestic stove accidents in Brazil are not specific, but INMETRO – National Institute of Metrology, started an on-line system in order to receive denounces. During 2012, from all accidents registered by INMETRO, 5,26% were related with stoves. The objective of this paper is to present data and analyse it to obtain basis to indicate better ways to help designing more safe products. To achieve the objective, it was applied a survey based on answers collected from users by means of on-line questionnaires. Data were analysed and related with the 7 Universal Principles of Design, whose concept started by north-american architect Ron Mace in 1997. Evaluating causes in accidents it was possible identify and visualise sub-components of occupational errors associated with it. Analysing the results it was considered also that is valid the co-responsibility of user in the accidents, since data showed that in 48% of the cases, the operational error was perceived and in 26% of the cases, failure in information perception occurred. The conclusion is that on-line data collection is valid to feed information system according with User Experience concept presented by NBR 9241-210 standard. It emphasizes this as a tool to create safe products. It was concluded also that stoves, as normally produced, do not comply with the variability of use and users from the point of view of occupational safety.Keywords: domestic stove; stove accidents; risk perception; occupational safety; product design.
STUDYING THE IMPACT OF AN AT-WORK EXERCISE PROGRAM ON THE OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
ANA RIBEIRINHO, ANA CRISTINA BARROS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
This study aims at exploring the relationship between labour exercise and operational performance of factories. In order to achieve this main goal, a study was conducted in one manufacturing company located in the Northern Region of Portugal, where a labour exercise program has been already implemented. Case study methodology was used in order to study the relationship between the use of labour exercise, human resources performance and operational performance. Evidence was collected both from quantitative data retrieved from the company’s documentation systems (including the Key Process Indicators (KPI) monitoring archive) as well as from qualitative data collected from managers during company visits. The conclusions drawn show that not sufficient evidence exists to establish a cause-effect relationship between labour exercise practice and operational performance.Keywords: Physical activity; workplace; musculoskeletal disorder; occupational stress; operational performance.
ESTATÍSTICAS DE ACIDENTES DA POPULAÇÃO IDOSA PORTUGUESA: BREVE REVISÃO
ANTÓNIO RIBEIRO, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
The individual and collective aging of the society, especially the causes of demographic changes and the challenge of finding solutions is an increasingly debated subject. The Portuguese elderly are more than two million and represent nearly one-fifth of the resident population. This short review of accident statistics emerged from the need to characterize the loss ratio of the Portuguese population aged 65 or more years old, as part of a study that is being developed on national policies and risk management of the activities of elderly population. This work took place in five steps; the third step was dedicated to the search of information on accident statistics in public organizations, in studies of university courses in the areas of health, gerontology, social support, physical education, ergonomics and OSH, and in full-papers available online in open academic repositories and sites. The statistical information obtained reflects mainly the work accidents and does not include many of the other occupational activities of the elderly. In the literature review was verified that the available information meets the type of economic activity, company size, professional group, deviation, material factors and other agents, but does not present data that support the characterization of the injured person, such as age, as it is identified by the International Labor Organization (ILO) resolution concerning statistics due to occupational injuries in work accidents. Accidents are the immediate and most obvious indicator of inadequate occupational conditions. The elderly present individually, functional, psychological and social conditions that characterize them as a vulnerable group when exposed to risk, with reflections in the accident rates. Considering the importance of human factors and the age of the injured person in the causality of accidents, it seems appropriate and essential to express the age groups (65 or more years) in the statistics of accidents, to respond to the information needs, to facilitate detection of changes in the level of occupational risk, as well as support the need for legislation and standardization of risk management issues in the activities of the Portuguese elderly population.Keywords: Aging, Elderly, Accidents Statistics, Age Group.
AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES DE TRABALHO, SATISFAÇÃO E SAÚDE LABORAIS DOS TÉCNICOS DE RADIOLOGIA DO NORTE DE PORTUGAL
CÂNDIDA RIBEIRO, JOSÉ FERREIRA, JUAN GESTAL
The area of radiology has experienced deep changes due to the implemented technologies and its increasing use in health care services, with special demands in terms of quality, productivity, efficiency and profitability of human resources. There has been a huge modification, in conventional radiology, involving jobs and assigned tasks. The aim of this research is the characterization of a meaningful sample of radiologists from the north of Portugal. Using a survey, we tried to be acquainted with the self-esteem of these specialists, with the working conditions and environment, organizational issues, technical equipment, overall satisfaction, number of accidents, state of health and modus operandi of Occupational Health and Health and Safety at Work services. The inquiry to the radiologists was applied in representative public and private institutions. The results allowed the identification of critical elements that should be considered in the development of tasks and in the organization of jobs, in order to improve working conditions and safety and also the profitability and quality of services.Keywords: Human resources, radiology technician, workplace satisfaction with work, radiology equipment.
PERCEPÇÃO DE INFECÇÃO CRUZADA: RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES
CLÁUDIA RIBEIRO, INÊS MARQUES, AUGUSTA MARQUES, NÉLIO VEIGA
Controlling the infection is in the best interest of all those who are in a certain clinic environment as well as the collaboration to achieve that goal is everyone´s common obligation. The current study aim: checking the knowledge by dentists about cross infection, though questionnaire that aimed to observe the methods of asepsis in dental office. Methods: The questionnaire contained questions about the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, rotary instruments and clinical appliances. Results: The survey was completed by 123 dentists, 84 are female and 39 were male. The mean age was 29,62 (SD = 3.95) Conclusion: Our study suggest the necessity dental professionals having an educational program on infection control precaution and supplying the facilities to allow compliance with infection control policies are necessary to reduce infectious.Keywords: cross infection; dental professionals; perception; occupational exposures; health attitudes.
CHARACTERISATION OF SINGLE USE SCRUB SUITS USING A THERMAL MANIKIN
PATRÍCIA RIBEIRO, ISABEL ABREU, MARIA JOSÉ ARAÚJO MARQUES ABREU
Over the last years scrub suits were gaining acceptance in the healthcare institutions and today are the most used materials for single-use medical clothing. Being the most used medical clothing by health professionals, scrub suits must be comfortable. The purposes of this paper is the study of thermal comfort regarding twelve commercially available scrub suits and relate the properties to determine some conclusions about the importance of thermal comfort in this specific clothing systems. Thermal properties were evaluated using a thermal dry manikin that simulates human body temperature.Keywords: single-use scrub suits, thermal comfort, thermal properties.
SEGURANÇA DO TRABALHO COMO UM FATOR NA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL DENTRO DAS ORGANIZAÇÕES
LENILSON OLINTO ROCHA, JONHATAN MAGNO NORTE DA SILVA, THIAGO MALHEIROS DA SILVA, DANIEL MENTOR BRAGA BATISTA
This study aims to emphasize the importance of safety and its benefits in the market image and politics of social responsibility within organizations. Job security is defined as a series of technical measures, medical and psychological professionals to prevent accidents by educating workers on ways to avoid them, as well as procedures to eliminate the unsafe conditions of the work environment. Social responsibility is the management of the company based on principles and values, expressed formally in their code of ethics and that should guide all your relationships, plans, programs and decisions. The practice of social responsibility reveals itself internally in setting up a healthy work environment conducive to professional accomplishment and people. This study was developed through a literature review of scientific articles, theses and dissertation books in the area of safety and health at work.Keywords: Safety and health at work, Social responsibility, Quality in work.
O CONTRIBUTO DA ECO-CONSTRUÇÃO PARA A PREVENÇÃO DE RISCOS PROFISSIONAIS
FERNANDA RODRIGUES, ALEXANDRA RIBEIRO
Eco-construction or sustainable construction is a concept that is growing and getting stronger all over the World and is currently being implemented to face the environmental concerns. It has as principal aim to create and manage a healthy built environment, taking into account the ecological principles and using the resources efficiently. However, to achieve these goals it is also essential to know which is the Eco-construction contribution (positively and negatively) for the occupational risks prevention. This paper analyzes Eco-construction regarding occupational hazards prevention through the study of the main areas underlying an assessment system for sustainable buildings that may have greater influence on the risks prevention. Then it was performed a risk assessment having regard to these criteria. The methodology used in this paper was based on a research and a review of contents in the area of sustainable development, risk assessment methodologies, the hazards and risks associated with Eco-construction, as well as measures to mitigate these risks. It was also conducted an exploratory study related to the application of preventive measures for the Eco-construction of three buildings. From the risk assessment performed through a qualitative method, it was concluded by its similarity with the conventional construction, however Eco-construction have higher incidence of some risks according with the specificity of some activities performed.Keywords: Sustainability; construction; hazards; assessment.
NÍVEL DE ACEITAÇÃO DE RISCO EM EMPRESAS DE MOBILIÁRIO: AS VISÕES DOS TÉCNICOS DE ST
MATILDE RODRIGUES, PEDRO AREZES, CELINA P. LEÃO
The understanding of the level of occupational risk that stakeholders’ are able to accept is an important key to the entire risk management process, particularly in the definition of the acceptance criteria. However, researches about this issue relating to occupational risks are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the level of risk that Occupational, Safety & Health (OSH) professionals are willing to accept in the furniture sector. The accidents distribution of the sector was analysed. A questionnaire called Analysis of Risk Acceptance in the Furniture sector (ARAF) was developed and applied. The ARAF included two main parts. The first part referred to the professional characterization and second part included 15 questions, where each one was constituted by a set of risk scenarios, created with basis on the accidents distribution. Groups of OSH professionals with similar judgments were identified by means of a two-step cluster analysis. Three distinct groups were found: unacceptable, tolerant and realistic groups. The realistic group has identified the limit of tolerable risk close to the Cumulative Distribution Function curve of the furniture sector accident and the acceptable limit lower than this curve. This study shows that there are differences in the judgments of OSH professionals about the level of risk acceptance.Keywords: Accident; Acceptable; Risk Management; Stakeholders; Tolerable.
VALIDAÇÃO E ADAPTAÇÃO LINGUÍSTICA E CULTURAL DA VERSÃO LONGA DO QUESTIONÁRIO COPENHAGEN PSYCHOSOCIAL QUESTIONNAIRE II (COPSOQ II) EM PORTUGUÊS
SUSEL ROSÁRIO, JOÃO FONSECA, JOSÉ TORRES DA COSTA
The psychosocial risks are recognized by European and national instances as one of the greatest challenges for occupational health and safety, as they are able to lead to serious physical and mental health deterioration of workers encompassing social and economic consequences. The occupational safety and health legislation confers a central place of the risk assessment in preventive approaches. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a tool developed by the Danish entity internationally renowned, recently revised, oriented evaluation of psychosocial occupational risk, considered an instrument directed to prevention. Given the absence of a Portuguese version validated instrument of the psychosocial risk assessment and its necessity in the labour context, the aim of this work was the linguistic and cultural adaptation and validation of the long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) in Portuguese. The original version of the instrument has been translated and adapted in a Portuguese sample of 239 workers belonging to various professional sectors. This study adopted a methodology based on the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health/Measurement INstruments) recommendations designed to study the psychometric properties of instruments. The questionnaire revealed good internal consistency for the total scale, with values of coefficient alpha test (α= 0.903) and retest (α= 0.917) reliability. The item-total correlations were estimated, and the items tend to present moderate to strong correlations with the total scale. The two weeks test-retest reliability of the Portuguese long version of COPSOQ II as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient was ranged from 0.832 e 0.852 for the total scale. The Portuguese long version of the COPSOQ II seems to offer the necessary validity for use by researchers and practitioners interested in assessing the psychosocial work environment.Keywords: Psychosocial Factors; Occupational Health and Well-Being; Work; COPSOQ II: long version.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL MILLS
J.C. RUBIO-ROMERO, J.A. CARRILLO-CASTRILLO, A. LÓPEZ-ARQUILLOS & M. SUAREZ-CEBADOR
This paper aims at examining the occupational accident rate, and OHS Management, in the olive oil mill industry in Spain. Our study analyses all occupational accidents which occurred during 2004-2009, with or without sick leave, at 90 Andalusian olive oil mills. Besides, after visits, inspections and interviews carried out in three olive oil mills, we design a pilot questionnaire, and interview 34 olive oil mills, then we drew up a questionnaire to 150 more with the collaboration of the Labor Authority, during the two-year research period, 2009–2010. Regarding the results, according to the Specific Physical Activity (onwards SPA), 33.78% took place when the worker was walking, running, going up or down, etc. In relation to the material agent associated with SPA, highlights the stairs and surfaces in general (20%). Regard to the deviation from the normal performance of the SPA we obtained: fall from height (12.16%) and fall (15%). The most frequent injuries were sprains, twists, luxations and subluxations (29%). As for the description of the circumstances of the injury or wound, we obtained overexertion and excessive physical effort (25%), crashing onto or against something as a result of a fall on the part of the worker (22%). The main characteristic of this industry are: fluctuations in activity and staff throughout the year, changes in shifts work, the widespread use of extraction systems continuous and the high level of noise generated and the lack of order and cleaning. Three quarters of the companies have someone in charge of liaising with the outsourced prevention services, in most cases an administrative clerk. Most of the olive oil mills have an Occupational Risk Prevention Plan. However, management policies fail to meet some important requirements adequately, such as those concerning noise exposure risk, emergency measures, etc.Keywords: accident rate, working conditions, management system, olive oil mill, safety.
AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCO EM UNIDADES DE PRESTAÇÃO DE CUIDADOS DE SAUDE
JOANA SÁ, MIGUEL TATO DIOGO
Health care workers are one of the professional categories with greater exposure to occupational risk, due to the specificities of their work, whether the performed tasks, the length of the workday and even the contact with patients. Health professionals are exposed to a high presence of risk factors, which are chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial. However, this occupational exposure can be controlled and minimized when security control measures is implemented. The aim of this paper is to present two methodologies to identify and assess risks, implement in a health facility, regarding the workers risk exposure. The application field of these methods was in a private health unit and it was based on methodological observational registration and descriptive data, using as tools risk assessment checklists and grids, withdrawn from technical manuals. The acquire results allowed to determine which sectors have the higher risk of exposure and the level of acceptability of the identified risks. Combining the data processing of the two methodologies, it was also possible to realize who are the most exposed to risk factors workers. This study objective, through the application of risk assessment methods to evaluate worker exposure, allows to know the activities under the workday and determine, on the basis of risk identified and evaluated, that interventions should be implemented, when and how, in order to ensure the safety of workers control.Keywords: risk; health care, workers, risk assessment, exposure.
HEALTHCARE WORKERS’ HEALTH: WHICH CHALLENGES?
EMA SACADURA-LEITE, ANTÓNIO SOUSA-UVA
Healthcare workers feel that the treatment and relief of suffering of patients are their top priority. Therefore, their main mission is to do the best for their patients, even if it entails some risks to their own health and wellbeing. In fact, during their activity, they can be exposed to many unique occupational hazards at workplaces that, in some conditions, can negatively affect them. Exposures to those hazards (or risk factors), throughout hospital departments are very variable and include physical, chemical, biological and psychological ones. Sometimes, some of them can potentiate the others, growing the risk of negative health effects. A good example for that is the exposure to psychological stressors that can affect immunity, influencing the risk of suffering from an infection related with the exposure to some biological hazards, in a complex way (Leite, 2009). The goal of this paper is to make an approach of healthcare workers activities and related hazards, looking forward some challenges to occupational health departments in order to promote healthy healthcare workers. To achieve that goal, authors have reviewed some published research about occupational hazards for healthcare workers and have discussed some possible challenges to promote their health and wellbeing. Traditionally, Occupational Health Departments have the aims of evaluating and managing occupational risks for health and safety at the workplaces. In a hospital setting, where professionals are used to deal with borderline situations of life, it seems particularly important to promote risk communication in order to meet professionals’ expectations and to raise awareness to whom most of times underestimate prevention is often undervalued.Keywords: hospitals, health hazards, healthcare workers.
HAND-ARM VIBRATION (HAV) PRODUCED BY PNEUMATICS SCREWDRIVERS USED IN A WIND POWER COMPANY
GABRIEL BÚRDALO SALCEDO, EDUARDO GARCÍA ORTIZ, JESÚS CEPEDA RIAÑO, MERCEDES DE BARRIOS CARRO, MIGUEL ÁNGEL DE BARRIOS CARRO
In this paper we present a wind power company´s study to check how portable tools can cause hand-arm vibration. The most used pneumatic screwdrivers have been specifically analyzed by this companies. These results may help to determine how vibration can affect workers. In this way are determined not only the normalized values of exposure for a day of eight hours and a comparison with the reference values of legislation, mainly Directive 2002/44/EC of June 25, 2002 and RD 1311/2005, of November 4. In the same way, daily working time should not be exceed by workers in order not to reach those benchmarks nor the baseline levels.Keywords: vibrations; hand-arm; screwdrivers.
PREVENIR E CONTROLAR A LEGIONELLA
CRISTINA SANTOS, ESMERALDA SANTOS
In Portugal the disease Legionnaires was detected in 1979. In 1986 was formed the European Group for the study of legionella infections (EWGLI), with the aim of ensuring the disease surveillance in Europe. In this sense, since 2007 the project has been in development for the prevention and control of legionella in the institutions and places considered to be most at risk in the municipality of Condeixa-a-Nova, developed by USP of ACES lower Mondego, counting on the collaboration of the Department of Environmental Health at the College of Health Technology of Coimbra. The target population consists of 15 sampling points and 27 sampling points. Objectives of this project are to promote knowledge and development of skills of those responsible for establishments with a view to effective monitoring and control of legionella. Were made 63 samples of water from showers revealing the presence of legionella pneumophila from invasive disease 2-14 in three of them. It was made 11 swabs and was not detected the bacteria in any of the samples. The samples of water and biofilm were subjected to laboratory analysis. The chlorine values fluctuated between 0 mgl and 6mgl and the water temperature between 15.7°C and 61.8°C. There was a training action with application of a questionnaire. Before the session 65% were obtained from correct answers and after the session 95.5%. With dual detection of concentrations legionella pneumophila in the same institution, in separate years, leads to the conclusion that there is a risk of occurrence of legionella infections, and that it is imperative to carry out rigorous prevention operations, maintenance and appropriate monitoring, with regular periodicity, which have been neglected. The three cases were detected in waters which had 41.5°C temperatures; 49.6°C and 57.9°C, at the recommendation of some publications of maintaining temperature at any point of the network, at least 50ºC, appears to be insufficient. We conclude the importance of implementing risk management plans in each institution, evaluating in detail its characteristics, in order to establish measures of prevention and control.Keywords: Disease; Legionnaires, Prevention, Showers.
FIABILIDADE NA CODIFICAÇÃO DOS ACIDENTES DE TRABALHO PARA QUATRO VARIÁVEIS DA METODOLOGIA EEAT
FERNANDO PINTO DOS SANTOS, CELESTE JACINTO, SÍLVIA AGOSTINHO DA SILVA, TIAGO FIALHO, CARLOS GUEDES SOARES
This paper presents a study on the intercoder reliability of the coding process of work accidents within the Portuguese official system, which follows the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) methodology of Eurostat (2001). It comprises two main objectives: 1) to assess the current situation, i.e., quantify the coding reliability performed by a group of “experts” of the Cabinet for Strategy and Planning (GEP; Ministry of Solidarity and Social Security), and 2) to assess the impact in the coding reliability when the coding is carried out by a group of Health and Safety Senior Technicians (H&SST), defined herein as the “non-experts” group in what concerns codification of ESAW variables. The study followed a structured methodology and besides using those two groups of coders it involved the following: the assessment of four nominal ESAW variables; the use of Krippendoff’s α through the macro KALPHA developed to estimate this reliability coefficient in SPSS software; 100 accident notifications (coding units) of year 2007, randomly selected from the GEP’s historical archive. The results showed that all variables held acceptable levels of reliability only when coded by the GEP group, and two of them even were classified as reliable data; by contrast, there was a considerable “loss in reliability” when the coding was transferred from the GEP group to the non-experts (H&SST) one. This proved that special training and expertise knowledge on the ESAW coding scheme has impact on the coders’ performance. Given that Portuguese authorities are developing a new electronic form for notifying accidents at work, it is expected that, in the near future, the coding task be accomplished online by non-experts, i.e., by the H&S professionals who currently fill in the notifications forms for company’s insurers. Therefore, this study is important to outline a nationwide training plan in companies and for monitoring the quality of accident data (reliability).Keywords: intercoder reliability, work accidents, Krippendorff’s.
PERCEPÇÃO PRINCIPAIS INTERVENIENTES CONSTRUÇÃO RELAÇÃO À PREVENÇÃO ACIDENTES TRABALHO ETAPA PROJETO: ESTUDO BRASIL
FREDERICO J. BARROS SANTOS, EMILIA R. KOHLMAN RABBANI, RAFAEL SACKS, FILIPA MALAFAYA-BAPTISTA, NUNO CACHADINHA, SILVIO MELHADO
There is a growing awareness to the need to guarantee occupational safety and health in the various stages of construction (conception, project, construction, operation, maintenance, and demolition). However, little has been published on the perception of the main players in this process (project coordinator, civil engineer and technical safety) on the influence of the design stage in the prevention of accidents in the construction industry. Based on surveys used by Israeli and Portuguese researchers, a survey was developed and carried out. Based on the answers of 26 respondents (12 civil engineers, six project coordinators, and eight safety technicians) active at seven construction firms of medium to large size in Pernambuco, Brazil, it was found that the majority of respondents did not believe that the construction design was responsible for placing workers in unnecessary dangerous situations, claiming that worker safety is due only to protective equipment and compliance with safety procedures. The need to disseminate this issue among those involved in construction was also perceived, since many respondents demonstrated a low level of knowledge about the subject and its role during implementation of prevention-through-design assumptions in the conception of new projects.Keywords: Occupational Safety, construction management, prevention through design.
ROUPAS PARA DEFICIENTES: PARÂMETROS PARA O DESIGN INCLUSIVO
HELIANA SANTOS, BRUNO RAZZA, FRANCIANE FALCÃO, JOÃO EDUARDO GUARNETTI DOS SANTOS, LUIS CARLOS PASCHOARELLI, CRISTINA CARAMELO GOMES
The industrial production of garments allowed the reduction in prices and larger variability of clothes styles, but also ended up excluding individuals whose biotypes do not fit the normal pattern used for the regular production standards. This is the case for disabled individuals who have mobility or size restrictions and face difficulties finding appropriate clothes to perform their daily activities. There are still few studies that have assessed the needs of these individuals in regard to clothes and they are mostly concentrated in women in wheelchair. Nevertheless, these studies have pointed out some important features that are relevant to design of clothes and industry, so this paper focused in the discussion about the needs and desires of these individuals in relation to clothing and pointed parameters for special clothes designs. In general, individuals whose disabilities have severe restrictions are more concerned with the functional aspects of clothing, such as comfort and ease of wearing, in comparison to aesthetic and symbolic aspects. For the disabled with little or moderate restriction, their needs are comparable to any other person. In regarding to clothes for people in wheelchairs, studies show that pants and sleeves should be longer to cover adequately the legs and arms and also slightly wider to facilitate the passage of the limb while dressing. The closures on the back of blouses and pants should be avoided as it restricts the access of individuals and reduces their independence. Although velcro is commonly cited as an element of closure in substitution to zippers and buttons, this is not recommended because it is more difficult to use and carry and stigmatizing aspect. The fabric should be comfortable and allow perspiration, with preference to natural than synthetic fabrics. Also, the fabric must be resistant in areas in contact with the chair or prosthesis, since mechanical stress is more pronounced in this use than in nondisabled subjects. Besides garment, the major complaints are related the stores and shopping services, since they generally present poor access and suitable models are not found with the necessary variability. These difficulties lead individuals to purchases restrictions in comparison to other people and they must rely on others to have access to garments. Thus, it is important that the clothes for these individuals are designed with the criteria of comfort and ease of dressing in mind, but also the aesthetic and style must be considered a determinant factor as to any other public. Moreover, the clothes must be available in common shopping services such as malls and department stores in order to provide a consumer experience that is really inclusive.Keywords: design; clothes; disabilities; inclusive design; universal design.
NEONOISE PROJECT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS IN A NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
JOANA SANTOS, CARLOS CARVALHAIS, MARA NÓIA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, MANUELA VIEIRA DA SILVA
The noise in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is recognized by many researchers as an agent with negative implications on health and well-being of premature infants and health professionals. The present study aimed to evaluate and analyse the sound pressure levels variations in a Portuguese NICU and the noise perception of health professionals and, consequently, propose control actions for noise reduction levels. The measurements of the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq), took into account the layout of unit and location of the main sources of noise. A questionnaire was applied to assess noise perception of professionals. In general, the results are higher than the limit recommended by international organizations, ranged between 48.3 dB (A) and 82.5 dB (A). Routine activities were identified as potential source of noise levels. Significant differences has been found between the morning and night shift (p<0.05). The implementation of quiet time protocol is the first step to noise control in the NICU studied.Keywords: noise; premature infants; health professionals.
MANIFESTATIONS OF MUSCLE FATIGUE DURING REPETITIVE LOW-MODERATE INTENSITY WORK: A BRIEF REVIEW
JOANA SANTOS, PEDRO MONTEIRO, ALBERTO SÉRGIO MIGUEL, RUBIM SANTOS, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA, MÁRIO VAZ
Muscle fatigue is a complex phenomenon that has been suggested to be an important precursor for work-related upperlimb musculoskeletal disorders. The assembly work is an example of low-moderate intensity work with elevated risk of muscle fatigue development. This review was performed to summarise and analyse the studies that investigated the influence of work requirements on muscle fatigue development in workplaces or experimental setting. This review was based on relevant articles published from 2000 to 2013 in the research platform Web of Knowledge. The studies included in this review were performed in humans and assess peripheral muscle fatigue in upper limbs during occupational activities. The search yielded 103 articles and 10 were included, according to inclusion criteria. Few studies were conducted in real work environment and the most common methods used to assess muscle fatigue were surface electromyography (EMG). The work duration and intensity level were the determinants of muscle fatigue that had more consistent results in terms of EMG- based parameters. In the studies that report subjective measurement of muscle fatigue, the subjective ratings increase. More research is needed to understand the impact of work requirements on muscle fatigue and work-related performance.Keywords: muscle fatigue, assembly work, repetitive work, low-intensity work, upper limbs.
INSPEÇÃO SEGURANÇA TRABALHO CENTRO LANÇAMENTO VEÍCULOS AEROESPACIAIS: UMA PERSPECTIVA PARTIR CONTRIBUIÇÃO TRABALHADOR
PAULA SANTOS, ANDRÉA BRITO, MARLLEN SANTOS, LEONARDO MEDEIROS, GORETTI DANTAS, MAURÍCIO ALCÂNTARA
The safety inspection is an effective tool used in the accidents and occupational diseases prevention, since it aims to check technically the workplace, as well as facilities and equipment in order to discover the risks that compromise health and physical integrity of workers. The workman has fundamental importance during the inspection once he knows best the production process and can assist security personnel in identifying potential risk areas. This article is the result of the implementation phase of the AEB / CNPq research project titled : “Implementation and Integration of Quality Management Systems, Environment, Safety and Health at government work organizations of the Brazilian Space Activities Development System” whose empirical field is the Launching Center of “Barreira do Inferno”. This work has mainly focused on employee participation through observational and interactional methods, using the activity analysis and tools of research such as questionnaires and structural interviews. The methodology used was satisfactory in obtaining results , because, from it, it was possible to detect the demands regarding safety and health at work existing in the institution and to propose measures to control the hazards found .From the data obtained during the inspection, it was possible to understand the peculiarities of each work post, know the existing risks and consequently formulate, togheter with workers, means to eliminate them or minimize them.Keywords: Workplace Safety, Environmental Risks, Management System, Occupational Health.
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RADON AND THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER
ANA SOFIA SILVA, MARIA DE LURDES DINIS
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasia in the world, representing the most common cause of death from cancer both in males and in females. Smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer. Radon exposure presents a lower risk for this disease, but it is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States; it is estimated that about 15 000 to 22 0000 deaths per year due to lung cancer are related with the exposure to radon. The aim of this work is to develop a literature review on the relation between occupational exposure to radon and lung cancer. Radon is a known human carcinogen (classified by IARC as group 1 with genotoxic action). The literature review was made through keywords search in several databases and scientific journals. Most studies concluded that populations with exposure to high doses of radiation have shown that lung cancer is the type of cancer most often associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. It is estimated that about 8% to 25% of current deaths from lung cancer are thought to be due to indoor radon exposure; radon is a hazard agent inside buildings, and there is a statistically significant association between occupational exposure to radon and lung cancer risk.Keywords: radon, occupational exposure, lung cancer.
RISK ASSESSMENT IN A RESEARCH LABORATORY DURING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS OF NANO-TIO2
FRANCISCO SILVA, PEDRO AREZES, PAUL SWUSTE
The nano-TiO2 is used in a large number of products and research is still going on to achieve new applications. Toxicological studies raise suspicions on the possible health effects from exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles, with particular worries on its carcinogenicity. Thus, it is necessary to perform a risk assessment during activities in which workers could be exposed to nano-TiO2. This paper intends to show that it is possible to assess workers’ exposure to nanoparticles risk in a research laboratory using both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods. By using direct-reading Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) equipment and the CB Nanotool it was possible to conclude that the risk seems to be low, while by using the Stofenmanager Nano the obtained results seems to be more conservatives.Keywords: nanoparticles; occupational hygiene; exposure; inhalation, control banding.
NANOTECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HYGIENE ASPECTS IN EUROPE
FRANCISCO SILVA, PEDRO AREZES, PAUL SWUSTE
The increase of the nanotechnology business and the widespread use of nanoproducts impose the need of occupational health and safety practices to protect the increasing number of workers exposed to nanoparticles in occupational setting. Nanotoxicology research during the last years has been producing results on the nanoparticles health effects but these should be more representative of the actual doses. The exposure and risk assessment could be performed by quantitative and qualitative methods available and different risk control measures are available. The ‘safety by design’ methodologies are seen as useful ways to deal with nanotechnologies risks. The workers’ health surveillance is a domain where the current knowledge is insufficient to assure a effective action. The activity in standardization is evident, both under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and European Committee for Standardization (CEN), meanwhile the European Commission seems to be waiting for more data to take a regulatory actions.Keywords: risk assessment; nanotoxicology, safety by design, standardization, health surveillance.
PAPEL DA DINAMOMETRIA NA PREVENÇÃO DE LESÕES MUSCULOESQUELÉTICAS
JOICINEY DAS CHAGAS SILVA, JOANA GUEDES
Muscle strength is the ability of a group of muscles have to perform voltage and through a voluntary effort, or the ability of muscle tissue to generate power through voltage. The muscle strength influence on the development of repetitive strain injury factor and musculoskeletal diseases related to work. Therefore identifying the necessary strength to perform certain tasks is essential for those who want to work preventively. Simple and rapid methods such as using manual and dorsal scapular dynamometer allows for the reading of the ability of muscular strength in the population willing to perform a certain task. This article aims to establish the importance of studying the ability of muscle strength in the preservation of occupational health. Highlight dynamometry as a practical method for evaluation of muscular strength. To establish reference values for grip strength between different nationalities and analyze the results. Conditions and identify several factors that influence the dynamometer results. Show preventive action applied by some public companies in Brazil, which for security, respect for human physical condition and capacity away unwanted injuries and occupational diseases. However the homogeneity of reference values applied in the implementation of dynamometry scapular, dorsal and Manual, in a country of continental dimensions large, with a population characterized by heterogeneity factors are discussed.Keywords: muscular strength, occupational health, preventive measures.
ADEQUAÇÃO DE UMA PRENSA EXCÊNTRICA DE ENGATE POR CHAVETA AS NORMAS DE SEGURANÇA BRASILEIRA
JONHATAN MAGNO NORTE DA SILVA, DANIEL MENTOR BRAGA BATISTA, THIAGO MALHEIROS DA SILVA, LENILSON OLINTO ROCHA
Eccentric presses of coupling by keyway are equipment extremely dangerous and are responsible for deaths and amputations of limbs and fingers in many Brazilian companies. Known this problematic , was idealized this article that aims to analyze the function and mode of operation of an eccentric press of coupling by keyway, and thus deploy safety devices and technical of security necessary to ensure the safety and physical integrity of operators of these presses , as well as compliance to national security norms. Methodologically picked up a press and analyzed its operation, catalog, safety features and mode of operation, and upon these was thought up and implemented a number of changes in order to accommodate this machine the safety norms. The machine showed inadequacies both from the point of view of safety of the work, of the ergonomics and comfort. Thus changes took place in the machine, with the deployment of fixed protection in parts of power transmission and cut, as well as replacement of the mechanical drive pedal by another pneumatic, added buttonholes and outlet to prevent accidental drive after equipment power. The solutions are relevant for control the risk of accidents and illnesses, in addition to adapting the machine the national security norms.Keywords: Work Safety in Presses, Machine Protection, Risk of Amputation and Deaths.
AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES DE ILUMINAMENTO EM UMA COOPERATIVA POPULAR DE MARCENEIROS
JONHATAN MAGNO NORTE DA SILVA, DANIEL MENTOR BRAGA BATISTA, THIAGO MALHEIROS DA SILVA, LENILSON OLINTO ROCHA
For safe execution of the work and assurance the quality standards of the products, the level correct of illuminance is required. However popular cooperatives do not always have financial and intellectual capital to make the local illuminated comfortably. So a study was devised with the aim of determining the illuminance level in cooperative Centre of Madeira, located in the city of Campina Grande in Paraíba, and in parallel proposes lighting design that respects national legislation on lighting in order to secure better conditions work at the studied site. Methodologically utilized the technique of measuring of interiors, present in NBR 5382 of the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms. To calculate the correct illuminance for the cooperative was used of the method of lumens present in NBR 5413 norm also the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms. The values found show that the environment has a level average of iluminancia of 119.9 lux, a value lower than 500 lux required by the national norms for work in carpentry. The lighting design proposed is relevant because suit the local the national norms, ensures a value average of illuminance of 526.6 lux for local, and proposes solutions to better use of sunlight.Keywords: Labor comfort, Lighting of indoor, Lighting design.
ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL VARIABLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS THROUGH GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS (GLM)
LUIZ SILVA, PRISCILA VASCONCELOS, FLAVIA BRITO, ANTONIO COUTINHO, ERIVALDO SOUZA, ELAINE MEDEIROS
This investigation analyzed the thermal comfort (according to international standards) and the performance (through Reasoning Test Batch (BPR-5)) of students in the classroom during three consecutive days. The tests were performed at three levels of dry bulb temperature, respectively, 24°C, 20°C and 30°C. Through Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was established the relationship between the thermal variables and the performance of the students. Considering a comfortable situation, the ideal tg is 24.38°C and ta is 22.66°C. The temperature for thermal sensations of neutrality and thermal comfort are respectively 23°C and 21°C. Approximately 85% of the variation in performance can be explained through dry bulb temperature, globe temperature and relative air humidity. But an increase of 1 degree in the globe temperature reduces the performance by 32%.Keywords: thermal comfort; performance, students, GLM.
ANALYSIS OF THE THERMAL VARIABLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS OF THE MILITARY POLICE ACADEMY OF THE STATE OF PARAIBA, BRAZIL
LUIZ SILVA, PRISCILA VASCONCELOS, FLAVIA BRITO, ANTONIO COUTINHO, ERIVALDO SOUZA, ELAINE MEDEIROS
This investigation analyzed the thermal comfort (according to international standards) and the performance (throughRe asoning Test Batch (BPR-5)) of students in the classroom during three consecutive days (18, 19 and 20, July, 2012). The tests were performed at three levels of dry bulb temperature, respectively, 24°C, 20°C and 30°C. Was used the statistical distribution of Kruskal-Wallis (α=0,05) to compare the samples. It was concluded that (1) only evidence relating to the mechanical reasoning tests (Rm) showed significant variation (p=0.03464 <0.05); (2) there was significant variation only in performance for (Rm) (p=0.0089<0.05) and numerical reasoning (Rn) (p=0.0036<0.05) between the temperature ranges in which students obtained better performance in the session at 30°C; and (3) there was no significant reduction in the performance of students regarding the variation of air temperature, considering the tests individually.Keywords: thermal comfort; performance, students.
COST-BENEFITS OF ERGONOMIC INTERVENTIONS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN STRATEGIES
MARCELO PEREIRA DA SILVA, FERNANDO GONÇALVES AMARAL, LAURA LIMA TASCA
This study summarizes data about the financial benefits acquired from ergonomic interventions and the different strategies used. The methodology used is based on a literature review of the ergonomic interventions with a financial focus. The results show that workstation redesign, task organization, training, education and recommendations seem to be the better published strategies.Keywords: financial benefits; investment, review.
AVALIAÇÃO DO RISCO DE EXPOSIÇÃO A AGENTES QUÍMICOS NUMA INDÚSTRIA DE GALVANOPLASTIA
MARCO SILVA, MIGUEL CORTICEIRO NEVES
Risk assessment for occupational exposure to chemicals should be one concern of all electroplating industries. The quantities and characteristics of hazardous substances and mixtures used, requires a risk assessment to ensure the protection of workers, and the legal compliance to the legal requirements in this area. This paper aims to apply a general method (NTP 330) for this assessment and compare the results with the results obtained from the application of three qualitative methods of risk assessment of exposure to chemical agents: NTP 934, NTP 936 and NTP 937, all published by the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo Espanhol (INSHT). After a description of the risk assessment methods applied, it will be performed a comparative analysis of risk level results and of the control measures to be implemented, with the aim of describing the advantages and disadvantages of each method and in what conditions it can be carried out. It is not intended replace quantitative methods by these methods, but rather to complement them and allow a first evaluation phase, a initial diagnosis of risk. This will allow in certain situations the adoption of measures to control the risk without recourse to quantitative methodologies, which are very lengthy and expensive. Safeguarding the fact that in case of high risk, assessment should be more detailed and use methodologies for measuring the concentration of chemicals in workplace atmosphere, for comparison with the threshold limit values.Keywords: Chemical Agents; Chemical Substances; Electroplating Industries.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AGE OF TRUCK DRIVERS AND THE SEVERITY OF OCCUPATIONAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
MÁRIO SILVA, PAULO HENRIQUES DOS MARQUES
This study aims to search for statistically significant association between truck drivers’ age and their occupational road traffic accidents. This was addressed in its different human, technological and infrastructural dimensions, considering the interaction between the driver, the vehicle and road environment. The first author’s long personal experience of truck driving and rescue operations of road accident victims may contribute to reduction of road traffic accidents and to occupational risk management of truck crews. The study of Portuguese official reports reveled that heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) have a higher accident involvement, as compared to other vehicles. On the other hand, at european level, 85% of road traffic accidents involving HGVs result from human error. Several studies have been made about the relationship of accidents with environmental conditions, characteristics of the road, traffic conditions, vehicles, driver’s attributes, as well as with traffic rules and their application. In these studies, the human factors were often identified as a major cause of accidents. Many opinions are coincident on the importance of the human factor in road traffic safety. Preparing our study, concerning Portugal, authors asked Autoridade Nacional de Segurança Rodoviária (ANSR) for data access. The data provided by this authority allows comparison with international studies and to search for a relationship between truck driver’s age and accidents severity, according our goal. This is being conducted to address the lack of factual knowledge in which circumstances accidents occur, and about the drivers’ age deviation responsibility. Methodologically, this study focuses on the quantitative observation of reality, adopting appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics, using tools such as Excel and SPSS. By choosing units of analyses, the focus is placed on road accidents with victims, occurred in Portugal, involving at least one HGV. The conclusions of this study will emerge from data analysis currently being processed. On the basis of statistics, the authors hope to determine whether different groups of truck drivers, sorted by age classes, have relationship with accidents of different severity rates. If the combination of age with the other variables has a predictive value of accidents, then this relationship could be useful in the management of occupational safety and health.Keywords: truck driver; crashes; age; severity.
RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE FATORES DE RISCO PSICOSSOCIAIS EM PESSOAL NÃO DOCENTE DE ESCOLAS PORTUGUESAS
SANDRA MARGARIDA SILVA, VASCO DE JESUS, PAULO HENRIQUES DOS MARQUES
This study aims to contribute to identification of psychosocial risk factors in non-teaching staff. The study is exploratory and descriptive. Its methodology consists in the descriptive and inferential statistics of responses to a questionnaire for identification of psychosocial risk factors, as well as in content analysis of responses to semistructured interviews. Preliminary results show that non-teaching staff needs to hide emotions and feelings, and also that some situations that affect psychologically relate to relations with co-workers. It is stated that «there is no team spirit» and that these relations are not satisfactory.Keywords: psychosocial risks; psychosocial risk factors; school context; non-teaching staff; F-PSICO.
PROPOSTA DE UM ÍNDICE DE AVALIAÇÃO PARA A FORMAÇÃO EM SEGURANÇA E HIGIENE NO TRABALHO.
ANA SOARES, MIGUEL DIOGO
The evaluation of training is an important tool in the context of organizations, since it evaluates its performance and its effectiveness, allowing companies to know whether the investment was worth and if it brought returns. The main objective of this study is to develop an index proposal for training evaluation compiling various indicators present in the literature review and based on the experience that has occurred in the work field. With this model it is intended to create a management tool that enables organizations to study the effectiveness of the implementation of training activities given to its workers. Three practical scenarios in order to identify different approaches to the indicators were created. The scenarios are based on the equity of the weights of indicators, the relevance of the indicators with a focus on workers and relevance of the indicators with a focus on organizational issues. According to the results of the three scenarios, the scenario related to workers stands with a higher value than the others.Keywords: training; evaluation, performance indicators, evaluation of training effectiveness.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY IN ADVERSE THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS – BRIEF REVIEW
A. OLIVEIRA SOUSA, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
Workers in mining, smelting or baking are constantly subjected to hot environments, humid or dry, affecting them in some way. This article aims to present some results from a literature review about the relationship between environmental conditions (thermal) and occupational safety. For this purpose, was performed a bibliographic research on the subject in accordance with PRISMA Statment. Despite the existence of that relationship be consensual among the different authors, the obtained results suggest that published studies only approach the problem in a qualitative perspective. Therefore it was concluded that there are currently no relevant studies that clearly quantify this relationship and thus further research should be done on the subject.Keywords: Hot Environment, Mining, Thermal Stress.
ESTUDO ANTROPOMÉTRICO DA POPULAÇÃO DE UMA FACULDADE PORTUGUESA
LUÍS SOUSA, MARIA EUGÉNIA PINHO, PEDRO AREZES
Anthropometry is an important tool which allows to collect information about the body measures, allowing ergonomists to understand human physical variation. Therefore it may provide important information to better design the work and leisure environments. In recent years, there has been an increasing need of knowledge of the human population’s anthropometrics, particularly in Portugal. Changes in the anthropometric characteristics of the Portuguese people have been reported in some studies, leading to an increasing interest on the study of the evolution of these characteristics. This study aimed to collect and analyse the anthropometric dimensions of the student population of FEUP. For that purpose, a stationary anthropometer was built and a portable anthropometer was also used. Two hundred and six students (131 males and 75 females) with ages ranging from 18 years old to 35 years old were measured. A set of 14 static anthropometric measures was collected and descriptive statistics delivered mean, standard deviation, and percentile values of each population group. Using the t-student test allowed to assess that males differ, in all but one (hip breadth) of their anthropometric measures, from female. That difference is denoted in males having larger dimensions than female. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test showed that all the anthropometric dimensions follow a normal distribution.Keywords: Anthropometry, Portugal, University Students.
OCCUPATIONAL ISSUES OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS WITH NANO-OXIDES
S.P.B. SOUSA, M.C.S. RIBEIRO, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
The modification of concrete materials with oxides nanoparticles usually leads to quite fair improvements on mechanical and barrier properties and to cement consumption reduction. The construction sector has normally the highest numbers of occupational diseases and accidents; with the indiscriminate use and application of nanomaterials these numbers can turn higher. This small review aims to analyse the possible safety impacts of the use and incorporation of nano-oxides during the cementitious materials production, with basis mainly on the published literature from 2005 to 2013. The literature examination was achieved using search engines (e.g. MetaLib) and directly in databases. Until now there is no direct knowledge about health implications in humans except to caution against ingestion of large amounts of nano-oxides. Current knowledge about the nano-oxides is insufficient, thus more research is needed to fill the existing gaps. Until then precautionary/prevention measures should be taken in the workplaces.Keywords: concrete; construction; nano-oxides; safety.
DOENÇAS PROFISSIONAIS - EMPRESA DE LACTICÍNIOS
MARIA MANUEL STYLIANO, ANA ISABEL COELHO, SUSANA PINTO, CARLA GONÇALVES, SARA PEREIRA, JOSÉ TORRES DA COSTA
Occupational diseases are an important cause of absenteeism, which consequently carries economic costs to the companies and to the society in general. Besides these consequences, professional illnesses also have an important interference in the health and social conditions of the workers usually implying a loss of quality of life and also a reduction in the productivity labor capacity. Because of this great impact in the individual, companies and in the society it is crucial the study of this reality. Several institutions, among which the International Labour Organization (ILO), call for a more adequate collection of data about professional illnesses. When it comes to the portuguese reality the available statistics of easy access reflect a global vision but not a detailed knowledge of this reality. With the purpose of describing the reality in a dairy company a descriptive study has been developed in a company in the North of Portugal, that produces and distributes milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt among other milk derivatives. The data has been obtained through clinical interview and analyses of the worker’s medical files. It was verified that in this company the most common professional illnesses were the upper limb tendinitis and deafness. The most affected gender was the female. The most affected sector was the cheese production sector. Of the recognized occupational diseases permanent partial disability (between 6% and 27%) was attributed in 8 cases. In 5 cases no disability was attributed (3 cases of deafness, 1 of tendinitis and 1 case of carpal tunnel syndrome).Keywords: occupational diseases; dairy company; tendinitis, deafness.
APTIDÃO CONDICIONADA NUMA EMPRESA DE LACTICÍNIOS
MARIA MANUEL STYLIANO, ANA ISABEL COELHO, SUSANA PINTO, CARLA GONÇALVES, SARA PEREIRA, JOSÉ TORRES DA COSTA
A job restriction is applied when an injury or illness prevents an employee from performing one or more routine functions of his job. Work restrictions intend to adjust the workplace conditions to employees with disability (either as a consequence of a natural disease or an occupational disease). The process of defining the restriction which will be applied requires the cooperation between all of the staff of the occupational health and safety department (doctor, nurse, health and safety technician) and the employers. The shortage of data concerning to work restrictions makes it crucial to encourage the recording and analysis of the data in order to create local and national strategies to deal with this reality. A descriptive, longitudinal study was performed that aimed to analyze the work restrictions applied to the 600 workers of a dairy company in the North of Portugal. The data was collected from the medical charts of the workers and their medical certificates. Between 2011 and 2013, 88 certificates were issued with restricted work orders (5% of all the medical exams performed by the occupational health department). About 8% of the employees had a restriction order. The workers to which work restrictions were applied were mainly women, usually as a consequence of a natural illness and during a limited period of time. The sector that was most affected was the cheese production. The work restriction more often applied was ergonomic, in order to avoid weight manipulation by the worker.Keywords: restricted work, disability, dairy company.
DETEÇÃO DA SENSAÇÃO TÉRMICA NUM LOCAL DE TRABALHO COM BASE NA APLICAÇÃO DE UMA ESCALA DE COR E DO ÍNDICE PMV
MÁRIO TALAIA, LEONOR TEIXEIRA, MARIANA MORGADO
This paper aims to show that thermal workplace sensation can be evaluated by a thermal color scale and applying PMV and PPD indexes. Through these results analysis was possible to characterize workplaces according to their thermal aspects and show their influence in workers well-being. The Healthy and Safety department has appreciated these results and will develop and adopt some prevention matters when building outside conditions present a hot or very hot thermal environment.Keywords: thermal environment; PMV index, PPD index, thermal comfort, critical workstations.
O METABOLISMO NA PRÁTICA DE AEROSTEP NUM AMBIENTE TÉRMICO QUENTE
MÁRIO TALAIA, JOÃO NOGUEIRA
Nowadays, the improvement of the thermal environment that influences the well-being of people in enclosed spaces has become a topic to be explored. In this work it’s evaluated the thermal sensation felt by practitioners of the sport modality of AeroStep in a multipurpose room of a gym, where is valued the clothing and the thermal sensation at the beginning and end of a class. The EsConTer, PMV and PPD indexes are used. The obtained results showed that the thermal environment of the gym at the beginning of a class can cause to the collapse of the body of the practitioners.
Keywords: thermal environment, EsConTer index, PMV index, PPD index, thermal comfort.
INDICADORES TÉRMICOS PARA AVALIAR A SENSAÇÃO TÉRMICA DO SER HUMANO NUM AMBIENTE EXTERIOR CONDICIONADO POR MAPAS DE TEMPO ATMOSFÉRICO
MÁRIO TALAIA, SORAIA GONÇALVES
This article depicts the influence of an air mass in human beings and in an outside environment of a dairy farm. It is considered the source of the air mass using atmospheric weather maps. Thermal feeling indexes are used. The obtained results show that the air mass influence transported by the wind, with the existence of cyclone and anti-cyclone, strongly regulates the human’s thermal feeling. Thermal indicators to evaluate the thermal feeling of the human being in an outside environment limited by atmospheric weather maps are considered. The used indexes show concordance in the results interpretation.Keywords: thermal environment, WBGT index, Wind Chill index, EsConTer index, circulation weather types.
ASSESSING DIFFERENCES IN WORKING CONDITIONS BETWEEN OFFICE AND FIELD WORKERS IN THE SAME COMPANY
CARLA S. D. TAVARES, MIGUEL L. LOURENÇO, DENIS A. COELHO
Interventions conducted by ergonomics and occupational health practitioners should focus on more than one factor. Interventions should comprise optimization of the workplace layout in combination with a feedback survey of the psychosocial work environment and individual training focusing on working technique. In the study currently underway that is reported in this paper, four sets of workers in the same company are being involved in an ergonomic and psychosocial assessment. Data is being collected in order to characterize the working conditions of the workforce of the company. The workforce is quite diverse, in terms of work settings and content of work, comprising office workers, and three kinds of field jobs. Two major sets of data for the whole population are to be obtained as a result of the study that is reported in this paper currently in the data collection phase: data pertaining to ergonomic analysis and data pertaining to psychosocial assessment. Three major comparisons between the resulting data are to be made. These concern the differences in psychosocial and ergonomics assessment, which are to be analyzed between water and sewage treatment workers, among the field workers of the company. Additionally, the differences in psychosocial assessment between office and field workers in the company are to be analyzed from a cross-sectional perspective. Moreover, a longitudinal perspective on the psychosocial assessment of the office workers is to be developed, based on two assessments one year apart (one that is already made, and another one that is currently underway). The paper presents the methods that are being used for data collection, as well as the planned rationale for analysis of results, aiming at the three major aforementioned comparisons.Keywords: Office jobs; field jobs; ergonomic assessment, psychosocial assessment, method of analysis.
AVALIAÇÃO DE RISCOS NA RECOLHA E TRANSPORTE DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS INDIFERENCIADOS
HUGO TEIXEIRA, MANUEL FREITAS, GEORGINA CUNHA
The present study is focused on the tasks performed by teams for the collection and transportation of urban solid wastes, in order to perform risk assessment to which they are exposed. For this, we applied a methodology for a generic risk assessment, which was complemented by ergonomic risk analysis and assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the tasks performed by these teams expose workers to high levels of risk, which requires the implementation of appropriate control measures.Keywords: Urban solid wastes; Risk Assessment; NTP 330; REBA; KIM.
UTILIZAÇÃO DE PARÂMETROS CLIMÁTICOS NA GESTÃO DA CONSTRUÇÃO EM ALTURA
ROSÁRIO TEIXEIRA, HÉLIO CAVALCANTI, J. SANTOS BAPTISTA
By changing with height, air velocity will condition workers’ comfort and productivity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine to what extent existing predictive productivity models for construction, focusing on thermal environment respond to this problem. In order to avoid bias, all data were collected in a real environment with properly calibrated equipment and in accordance with international standards. It was found that none of the applicable and more mentioned models in the literature gives appropriate response. So, it is open a new research field.Keywords: Construction of buildings, thermal environment, height, productivity.
RISCOS EMERGENTES DECORRENTES DO DILEMA SEGURANÇA/PRODUÇÃO – APLICAÇÃO AO SETOR DA CONSTRUÇÃO
MANUEL TENDER, JOÃO COUTO, JOÃO BAPTISTA, RUI MARTINS, MARIA FERNANDA RODRIGUES
The enterprises exposure to huge pressures to fulfill the objectives of deadlines and budgets with less manpower and materials, transformed working conditions, promoting the onset of pressure situations and embarrassment for technicians involved in the sector denying the possibility to develop its works as efficiently as possible. According to some studies already developed the consequences of the emergence of these new risks are amazing and should be given by all stakeholders’ careful attention. It is in this context that the authors have implemented an online survey of Portuguese technicians involved in the construction sector with the aim of identifying and characterizing the level of emerging risks at psychosocial aspect. This article will analyze the impact that choices in the framework of the production work are in terms of emerging risks, safety and health of the individuals concerned. It is intended also to sensitize, through numerical results, the various stakeholders of the industry to the need to take into account the appearance and increment of such risks.Keywords: construction safety, emerging risks, dilemma safety/production, investigation.
SEGURANÇA NA UTILIZAÇÃO DE EMPILHADORES ELÉTRICOS: APRECIAÇÃO DE RISCO DE ACORDO COM A NORMA EN ISO 12100
TIAGO TOMÁS, LILIANA RIBEIRO, EMANUEL GOMES, MÁRIO REBELO, PAULO LARANJEIRA
One of the goals of the machinery directive (2006/42/EC) is to increase the level of safety of machinery. This study takes into account the main safety features that are required by this regulation and associated standardization and their impact on the safety during use of forklifts. It was analyzed the official Portuguese data on accidents at work to characterize the contribution of this equipment to accident statistics. This information was complemented by data collected from the shop floor. The main dangers were identified as well as the corresponding safety measures introduced by both users and the manufacturer of the forklift. This task was carried using a methodology based on the standardization framework developed to support machinery directive. The safety measures that were identified are related with organizational issues (training and information, workplace layout) and are addressed mostly by users. Other measures include engineering techniques used in the forklift design by the manufacturer. This safety measures can be a good example for improving working conditions in other workplaces.Keywords: Safety of Machinery, Risk assessment, Machinery Directive, Work equipment, Forklift truck.
PROPOSTA DE INTEGRAÇÃO DO GERENCIAMENTO ÁGIL DE PROJETOS COM A GESTÃO DE RISCOS EM SAÚDE E SEGURANÇA DO TRABALHO
ANA PAULA KLOECKNER TUDESCO, LAURA LIMA TASCA, FERNANDO GONÇALVES AMARAL
Construction industry is known worldwide for its high rate of accidents at work. Several tools have been proposed to help managing health and safety but, in order to improve the current situation, a new management perspective is required. This paper proposes agile project management as an approach for improvements to health and safety. The work was conducted through a systematic literature review to identify the current situation of health and safety risks management in construction projects. It identifies current tools, difficulties and recommended solutions associated with the area. Concepts of agile projects are then addressed and particular characteristics are identified as potential solutions to the referred difficulties. We conclude that this approach allows focusing on the execution phase of projects andfacilitates health and safety management, making it constantly present in project culture.Keywords: Agile Projects, Risks in Occupational Health and Safety, Project Management, Safety Management.
EXPOSURE TO FUNGI IN DOCKERS
CARLA VIEGAS, RICARDO DIAS
Several activities are ensured by dockers increase occupational exposure to several risk factors, being one of them the fungal burden from the load. In this study we aim at characterizing fungal contamination in one warehouse that storage sugar cane from a ship, and also in one crane cabinet that unload the same sugar cane from the ship. Air samples were collected from the warehouse and from inside the crane cabinet. An outdoor sample was also collected, from each sampling site, and regarded as reference. Sampling volume was selected depending in the contamination expected and the air samples were collected through an impaction method with a flow rate of 140 L/min onto malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.05%), using the Millipore air Tester (Millipore). Surfaces samples from the warehouse were collected by swabbing the surfaces of the same indoor sites, using a 10 by 10 cm square stencil according to the International Standard ISO 18593 (2004). The obtained swabs were then plated onto MEA. All the collected samples were incubated at 27ºC for 5 to 7 days. After laboratory processing and incubation of the collected samples, quantitative (colony-forming units – CFU/m3 and CFU/m2) and qualitative results were obtained with identification of the isolated fungal species. Aspergillus fumigatus present the highest fungal load and WHO guideline was overcome in both indoor sampling sites. The results obtained in this study highlight the need to know better the exposure burden from dockers, and specifically to fungi contamination.Keywords: Fungi contamination; Occupational exposure; Dockers.
ASPERGILLUS GENERA FUNGAL CONTAMINATION IN A PORTUGUESE COMPOSTING PLANT
CARLA VIEGAS, RAQUEL SABINO
Fungal contamination in composting facilities has been associated with increased respiratory and skin pathologies among compost workers. In this study we aim to characterize the fungal contamination caused by Aspergillus genera within a totally indoor composting plant located in Portugal. Air samples of 50L were collected from 6 sampling sites through an impaction method. Surfaces samples were collected by swabbing the surfaces of the same indoor sites. Pretreatment and waste screw were the sampling sites of the analyzed composting plant with the highest Aspergillus load in the air. Globally, the genus Aspergillus presented the highest prevalence both in the air from (90.6%), and surfaces from the same sampling sites (60.8%). The results obtained in this study claim the attention to the need of further researchregarding to fungal contamination due to Aspergillus genus in composting plants.Keywords: Fungal contamination; Aspergillus genus; composting plant.
SURFACES CONTAMINATION WITH 5-FLUOROURACIL IN TWO PORTUGUESE HOSPITALS
SUSANA VIEGAS, MÁRIO PÁDUA, MÁRIO GOMES
During the last years there has been an increasing concern about occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs in Hospitals. The first findings on occupational exposures among hospital personnel administering chemotherapy were reported only in 1979. Since then a great number of studies have been published describing possible exposure-related health effects. Consequently, rigorous guidelines for the safe handling of cancer chemotherapeutic agents were devised and the handling facilities in hospitals were extensively improved. However, recent studies developed in European countries revealed detectable amounts of several drugs in surface wipe samples. Dermal absorption after contact with contaminated surfaces can play an important role in exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Therefore, the existence of contamination in workplace surfaces implies an increased risk of exposure for health care workers. Since there is no recent report in Portugal, regarding the occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, a study was developed aiming to determine the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) contamination on work surfaces of two Portuguese hospitals. In order to assess surfaces contamination by 5-FU, two different areas were wipe sampled: preparation and administration of antineoplastic drugs. The analysis of the extracted wipe samples was blinded and performed using a HPLC-DAD procedure (LOQ =10 ng/cm2). In a total of 348 samples, 39 (11.2%) showed measurable levels of 5-FU (Hospital A: 17 (24%); Hospital B: 22 (8%)) with the administration areas presenting a higher number of contaminated samples in both hospitals (Hospital A: 43% vs 12%; Hospital B: 13% vs 5%). However, and in agreement with previous studies, the highest level of contamination was obtained in preparation area (storage cabinet of Hospital A – 78.8 ng/cm2). In conclusion, both hospitals showed surfaces contaminated with 5-FU, suggesting possible exposure to cytostatic drugs by dermal absorption. These results stress the need of constantly promote good practices and safety procedures among professionals and the need to perform routine monitoring of surfaces contamination in this occupational setting.Keywords: cytostatic drugs; occupational exposure; dermal absorption; wipe sampling.
EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN A COMPOSTING PLANT
SUSANA VIEGAS, MARINA ALMEIDA-SILVA, CARLA VIEGAS
Some previous studies have suggested that some of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in composting plants may have a toxic effect that can influence, besides surroundings populations, workers from the composting plants. Impact of waste management to the environment and workers is already recognised as an environmental and occupational health concerns. Several studies regarding the VOCs and bioaerosols emissions from composting have been conducted all over Europe and also in Asia. However, in Portugal the studies developed are scarce and normally VOCs are not studied and recognize as a risk factor present in this occupational setting. Considering this, a study was developed in a Portuguese composting plant aiming to clarify if there was VOCs presence in the workplaces. Measurements were performed in six workplaces (Maintenance workshop, Centrifuges, Maturation Park, Pre-treatment, Control room and Waste screw) using a portable direct-reading equipment and done continuously for 5 min at each site. The mean, maximum and minimum values obtained in each location were considered. VOCs results showed that the workplaces called Waste Screw, Control Room and Pre-treatment obtained the higher values (mean values [ppm]: 20.8, 4.1 and 8.6, respectively). In this study, was not possible to identify the specific VOCs present in the different workplaces making impossible to recognize the specific emission sources, however, it was possible to confirm that in this occupational setting workers are exposed simultaneously to several VOCs and the health effects of possible synergetic reactions are not known and it is important to developed more research work about this matter. The results allowed the definition of a more detailed sampling strategy and to recognize the need of more specific and sensitive analytical resources to better characterize exposure to this specific risk factor in composting plants.
Keywords: composting plants, volatile organic compounds, occupational exposure.
ANÁLISE DO RISCO COMO FERRAMENTA DE AVALIAÇÃO DE CUSTOS DA SINISTRALIDADE LABORAL: CASO DE ESTUDO
JOSÉ PEDRO VIEIRA, NÉLSON COSTA
The occupational accidents are a matter that should be improved on an ongoing basis, since both the employees and the company can benefit. The workers can have an improved health and safety environment on their workplace and the company can save money due to the accident cost reduction. The current investigation is looking to establish a relation between the risk assessment and the accident costs. This relation will be useful to verify if the risk assessment is a good tool to forecast the company’s accident costs. From a practical point of view, if there’s any relation between these variables, the company can take advantage from the risk assessment and get a better management of the improvements on the workplaces. After the analysis undertaken in this study, some statistical data were collected in order to search for some trends, trying to establish a comparison between the risk assessment and the accident costs. Even though a significant relation between these two variables was not found, the risk assessment remains an area with enough importance and potential to reduce the occupational accidents.Keywords: Occupational Accidents; Accident Costs; Risk Assessment.
THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS IN HEALTH AND SAFETY AND COMPETENCE
José Pedro Carvalho Araújo, Fátima Lobo
This paper outlines the development of professionalization in health and safety. The role of professional associations is identified as key to this process and the activities of a number of professional associations concerned with health and safety in the United Kingdom are reviewed. Establishing and maintaining competence of health and safety professionals is highlighted as a significant area of many professional associations. This is discussed in the context of the publicly available Occupational Health and Safety Consultants’ Register (OSHCR) which was launched in 2010 following a UK Government review of health and safety. The contribution professional associations make to provision of proportionate competent advice is considered.Keywords: professionalization, approving bodies, competence, OSHCR.